Polysemy (pronounced /pəˈlɪsɨmi/ or /ˈpɒlɨsiːmi/) (from the Greek: πολυ-, poly-, "many" and σήμα, sêma, "sign") is the capacity for a sign (e.g., a word, phrase, etc.) or signs to have multiple meanings (sememes), i.e., a large semantic field.Charles Fillmore and Beryl Atkins’ definition stipulates three elements: (i) the various senses of a polysemous word have a central origin, (ii) the links between these senses form a network, and (iii) understanding the ‘inner’ one contributes to understanding of the ‘outer’ one.Polysemy is a pivotal concept within social sciences, such as media studies and linguistics. - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Good brief overview of polysemy at the University of Texas.
Traditionally, two types of lexical amibiguity are distinguished: homophony refers to cases in which two words “accidentally” have the same phonological form (e.g., bank), whereas polysemy refers to the phenomenon that one and the same word acquires different, though obvi- ously related, meanings, often with respect to particular contexts. Consider the following exam- ples of homophony (cf. Pustejovsky (1995): p. 27):
(1) a. Mary walked along the bank of the river. b. HarborBank is the richest bank in the city.
(2) a. Drop me a line when you are in Boston. b. We built a fence along the property line.
(3) a. First we leave the gate, then we taxi down the runway. b. John saw the taxi down the street.
(4) a. The discussion turned on the feasibility of the scheme. b. The bull turned on the matador.
(5) a. The judge asked the defendant to approach the bar. b. The defendant was in the pub at the bar. c. He bought a bar of soap.
Polysemy in SanskritLiterary India: comparative studies in aesthetics, colonialism, ... - Page 179
Research trends in lexicography, Sanskrit, and linguistics: ...
|books.google.comPatrick Colm Hogan, Lalita Pandit - 1995 - 289 pages - Preview|
What complicates a translator's task is not only the presence of puns like the ones in Bhartrihari's or Yeats's poetry, but also the interaction in the original text between polysemy and punning. "Padmaraga," the Sanskrit term for " ruby ...
Yuktarupaka - an appropriate metaphor
Rupaka - having form, figurative
śliṣṭarūpaka - having ambiguity as a metaphoryuktarūpaka
an appropriate metaphor Ka1vya7d.
|(H3) yuktá--rūpaka [p= 853,3] [L=171779]||n.|
having form , figurative , metaphorical , illustrating by figurative language Sa1h.
|(H2) rūpaka [p= 886,2] [L=179213]||mfn.|
a partic. coin (prob. a rupee) Var. Pan5cat. &c
|(H2B) rūpaka [L=179214]||m.|
(in music) a kind of measure Sam2gi1t. (cf. -tāla)
|(H2B) rūpaka [L=179215]||m.|
form , figure , shape , appearance (mostly ifc. , with f(ā). , = having the form of , composed or consisting of , similar to) MBh. Ka1v. &c
|(H2B) rūpaka [L=179218]||n.|
image , likeness AitBr. Katha1s.
|(H2B) rūpaka [L=179219]||n.|
feature , sign , symptom W.
|(H2B) rūpaka [L=179220]||n.|
kind , species MaitrUp.
|(H2B) rūpaka [L=179221]||n.|
(in rhet.) a figure of speech , metaphor , comparison , simile (esp. one in which iva , vat &c are omitted e.g. bāhu-latā , " a creeper-like arm " , paṇi-padma , " a lotus-like hand " ; there are 3 or 4 varieties of rūpaka e.g. the ardha-r° , " partial metaphor " , khaṇḍa-r° , " imperfect metaphor " , and lalāma-r° , " flowery metaphor ") Ka1vya7d. Sa1h. &c (cf. IW. 458)
|(H2B) rūpaka [p= 886,3] [p= 886,2] [L=179222]||n.|
a drama , play , theatrical performance (esp. of the principal class , as opp. to the upa-rūpakas or inferior dramas ; of the former there are 10 species including the nāṭaka or higher order of play and the prahasana or farce) Das3ar. Sa1h. &c ( IW. 471)
|(H2B) rūpaka [L=179223]||n.|
a partic. weight (= 3 guñjās) L.
|(H2B) rūpaka [L=179224]||n.|
= mūrta or dhūrta L.
|(H2B) rūpaka [L=179225]||n.|
a partic. kind of rūpaka (metaphor) Ka1vya7d.
|(H3) rūpaka--rūpaka [L=179229]||n.|
(in rhet.) a flowery metaphor.
|(H3) lalāmaka--rūpaka [p= 898,2] [L=181810]||n.|
(scil. rūpaka) a metaphor which contains a partic. comparison (said to be a variety of the general rūpaka) ib.
|(H3) vi-śiṣṭa---yukta [p= 990,2] [L=200599]||n.|
a continuous series of words having a double meaning (a kind of metaphor) S3is3. Sch.
|(H3) śliṣṭa--paramparita-rūpaka [p= 1104,1] [L=224051]||n.|
ambiguity as a metaphor Ka1v. ii , 87.
|(H3) śliṣṭa--rūpaka [L=224052]||n.|
a complete metaphor Ka1vya7d.
|(H3) sa-kala--rūpaka [p= 1124,2] [L=227761]||n.|
a kind of metaphor (used for the justification of a bold assertion) Ka1vya7d.
|(H3) sam-ādhāna---rūpaka [p= 1159,3] [L=234151]||n.|
a metaphor consisting of mere attributes Ka1vya7d.
|(H4) sa--viśeṣaṇa---rūpaka [p= 1191,1] [L=239584]||n.|
a metaphor accompanied with reasons (e.g. gāmbhīryeṇa samudro 'si , " because of thy profundity thou art a sea ") Ka1vya7d. ii , 83 ; 86.
|(H3) hetú--rūpaka [p= 1304,1] [L=264028]||n.|
and let’s not forgetarūpaka
shapeless , immaterial MBh. iii , 12984
|(H2) a-rūpaka [p= 89,1] [L=15526]||mfn.|
|[L=15527]||(in rhetoric) without figure or metaphor , literal.|
Sanskrit Words for Simile aṅgāṅgibhāva
correlation between the limbs of a body
|(H3) aṅgā* ṅgibhāva [p= 7,3] [L=1600]||m.|
|[p= 8,1] [L=1601]||the mutual relation or correlation of the different limbs or members of anything , as in a simile or comparison between the principal parts or features of any object and those of the thing compared to it.|
a concealed simile (the particle of comparison being omitted).
|(H3) antargato* pamā [p= 44,2] [L=8282]||f.|
" denial , concealment of truth " , using a simile in other than its true or obvious application Kpr. Sa1h.
|(H2) apa-hnuti [p= 53,3] [L=9938]||f.|
a simile which merely states the object of comparison (without adding the tertium comparationis or any particle of comparison e.g. " he is a lion " , said in praise) Nir.
|(H3) artho* pama [p= 91,2] [L=16053]||n.|
a simile by which two things are only compared with regard to their parts Ka1vya7d.
|(H3) ava-yava--rūpaka [p= 102,2] [L=17846]||n.|
a simile by which two things are only compared as wholes Ka1vya7d.
|(H3) avayavi-rūpaka [L=17850]||n.|
(in rhetoric) a dissimilar simile.
|(H3) asadṛśo* pama [p= 118,3] [L=20607]||n.|
a simile that implies an impossibility Ka1vya7d.
|(H3) asaṃbhāvito* pamā [p= 119,3] [L=20769]||f.|
a simile , in which the object compared is only hinted at Ka1vya7d.
|(H3) ā-kṣepa--rūpaka [p= 128,3] [L=22411]||n.|
a kind of simile (in which iva is employed) Bhat2t2. x , 30.
|(H3) ivo* pamā [p= 168,3] [L=29436]||f.|
ud-pra- √īkṣ) A1. -pre*kṣate , to look up to (with attention , as a pupil to his teacher who occupies an elevated seat) R. ;
|(H1) ut-pre* kṣ [p= 181,3] [L=31793]||(|
to observe , regard ;
to look out or at Ka1d. ;
to expect Ba1lar. ;
to reflect on the past Amar. ;
to use (a word) figuratively ;
to transfer (with loc.) Sa1h. Ka1vya7d. ;
to take anything for another , compare one thing with another , illustrate by a simile ;
to fancy , imagine Ka1d. Ven2is. ;
to ascribe , impute.
|(H2) ut-pre* kṣaṇa [L=31795]||n.|
|[L=31797]||foreseeing , anticipating |
|[L=31798]||comparing , illustrating by a simile |
to he expressed by a simile Sa1h.
|(H2) ut-pre* kṣaṇīya [L=31799]||mfn.|
the act of overlooking or disregarding
|(H2) ut-pre* kṣā [L=31800]||f.|
|[L=31801]||carelessness , indifference |
|[L=31803]||(in rhetoric) comparison in general , simile , illustration , metaphor|
Sa1h. Va1m. Kpr.
|[L=31805]||an ironical comparison |
|(H2) ut-pre* kṣā [p= 1321,3] [L=322670]||(in |
a kind of simile Va1m.
|(H3) utpre* kṣā* vayava [p= 181,3] [L=31806]||m.|
compared (as in a simile).
|(H2) ut-pre* kṣita [L=31808]||mfn.|
|(H2) ut-prekṣita [p= 1321,3] [L=322680]||(also) invented (as opp. to "borrowed"), |
a kind of upamā or simile , Ka1vya7d.
|(H3) utpre* kṣito* pamā [p= 181,3] [L=31809]||f.|
a kind of comparison, Ka1vya7d. ii, 23.
|(H3) ut-prekṣi--° to* pamā [p= 1321,3] [L=322680.1]||f.|
to expressed by a simile Sa1h.
|(H2) ut-pre* kṣya 1 [p= 181,3] [L=31810]||mfn.|
having looked up &c
|(H2) ut-pre* kṣya 2 [L=31811]||ind.p.|
» below , and for 3. » col.3) ind. (Ved. instr. of the above ) in the closest proximity or neighbourhood RV. i , 31 , 15 ; viii , 69 , 13.
|(H2) upamā́ 1 [p= 203,2] [L=35272]||(for 2. |
(Impv. 2. sg. -mimīhi , -māhi , and -māsva ; Subj. 2. sg. -māsi) to measure out to , apportion to , assign , allot , grant , give RV. : A1. -mimīte , to measure one thing by another , compare MBh. Hariv. Caurap. &c
|(H1) upa- √ mā 2 [p= 203,3] [L=35299]||P. A1.|
comparison , resemblance , equality , similarity
|(H2) upa-mā́ 3 [L=35300]||f.|
&c ) S3Br. MBh. Kum. &c
|[L=35301]||a resemblance (as a picture , portrait |
» pūrṇo*pama , lupto*pamā , &c ) Sa1h. Ka1vya7d. Va1m. &c
|[L=35302]||a particular figure in rhetoric , simile , comparison (a full simile must include four things ; |
|[L=35303]||a particle of comparison |
|[L=35304]||a particular metre |
comparison , resemblance , analogy MBh. Sus3r. Katha1s. &c
|(H2) upa-māna [L=35313]||n.|
Pa1n2. Sa1h. Kum. &c
|[L=35315]||the object with which anything is compared |
|[L=35316]||a particle of comparison |
log.) recognition of likeness , comparison (the third of the four pramāṇas or means of correct knowledge)
(ifc.) similar , like Katha1s.
|(H2B) upa-māna [L=35318]||mfn.|