Mudra- Joyous, glad, Seal, sign, type, token, authorization, passport, positions of the fingers

In Tantra Yoga, we use the word mudra in all these senses, as an expression of joy, a sign of an internal energy state, an an authorization given by the pranashakti in the body as it passes through a portal in consciousness, and takes the incarnate individual into a higher state of resonance, the person spontaneously makes positions of the fingers that act as a passport into divine awareness; the fingers and hands make a seal in the air.

These are some of the Tantric Mudras:
karaṅkiṇyā krodhanayā bhairavyā lelihānayā |
khecaryā dṛṣṭikāle ca parāvāptiḥ prakāśate || 77 ||

Jaideva Singh suggests several etymologies of mudra from within the tradition, including” mudam (harsam) rati (dadati) - that which gives muda or joy.” Harsa, in turn, means “bristling, erection (especially of the hair in a thrill of rapture or delight), joy, pleasure, happiness, erection of the sexual organ, sexual excitement, ardent desire, delighted.”

Just improvising with the etymologies here, we could say that when you are delighted, thrilled, our hair standing on end with delight from the joyous interaction of the the physical body with the pranamayakosha and all the subtle bodies, you spontaneously are moved to make gestures that are as passports into higher consciousness. And this is indeed what I see again and again over the past 40 years as people engage with the teachings expressed by The Radiance Sutras.

  • joyous , glad
  • a seal or any instrument used for sealing or stamping , a seal-ring , signet-ring, any ring
  • type for printing or instrument for lithographing
  • the stamp or impression made by a seal
  • any stamp or print or mark or impression
  • a stamped coin , piece of money , rupee , cash , medal L.
  • an image , sign , badge , token (esp. a token or mark of divine attributes impressed upon the body)
  • authorization , a pass , passport (as given by a seal).
  • shutting , closing (as of the eyes or lips gen. or comp.).
  • a lock , stopper , bung.
  • a mystery
  • N. of particular. positions or intertwinings of the fingers (24 in number , commonly practised in religious worship , and supposed to possess an occult meaning and magical efficacy
  • a. branch of education (" reckoning by the fingers ")
  • parched or fried grain (as used in the śākta or Tantrik ceremonial)
  • (in rhetoric.) the natural expression of things by words , calling things by their right names.
  • (in music) a dance accordant with tradition.

mudrá [p= 822,3] [L=165529]
joyous , glad AV.
mudrā́ [p= 822,3] [L=165530]
» mudrā below.
mudrā [p= 822,3] [L=165535]
(fr. mudra » above ) a seal or any instrument used for sealing or stamping , a seal-ring , signet-ring (cf. aguli-m°) , any ring MBh. Ka1v. &c
822,3] [L=165536]
822,3] [L=165537]
822,3] [L=165538]
MBh. Ka1v. &c
822,3] [L=165539]
822,3] [L=165540]
esp. a token or mark of divine attributes impressed upon the body) Ka1v. Pur. Ra1jat.
822,3] [L=165541]
822,3] [L=165542]
gen. or comp.) Ka1v.
822,3] [L=165543]
Amar. Bhpr.
822,3] [L=165544]
822,3] [L=165545]
of partic. positions or intertwinings of the fingers (24 in number , commonly practised in religious worship , and supposed to possess an occult meaning and magical efficacy Das3. Sarvad. Ka1ran2d2. RTL. 204 ; 406)
822,3] [L=165546]
partic. branch of education (" reckoning by the fingers ") DivyA7v.
822,3] [L=165547]
śākta or Tantrik ceremonial) RTL. 192
822,3] [L=165548]
rhet.) the natural expression of things by words , calling things by their right names Kuval.
822,3] [L=165549]
(H2) mfn.
(H2B) f.
(H1) f.
[p= type for printing or instrument for lithographing
[p= the stamp or impression made by a seal
[p= any stamp or print or mark or impression
[p= a stamped coin , piece of money , rupee , cash , medal
[p= an image , sign , badge , token (
[p= authorization , a pass , passport (as given by a seal)
[p= shutting , closing (as of the eyes or lips
[p= a lock , stopper , bung
[p= a mystery
[p= N.
[p= a
[p= parched or fried grain (as used in the
[p= (in
[p= (in music) a dance accordant with tradition

mudrá [p= 822,3] [L=165529]
joyous , glad AV.
(H2) mfn.

Here are some examples of usage of the term mudra:

The heart of yoga: developing a personal practice - Page 67
- 1999 - 244 pages - Google eBook - Preview
The position of one hand resting in the other is called dhyāna mudrā, the mudrā of contemplation. In the cin mudrā, the thumb and index finger of the left hand are formed into a circle. (The right hand is used to regulate the breath at ...
T. K. V. Desikachar

Hymns to the Goddess - Page 137
- 1952 - Full view
20). 161 Tanuvrittamadhyām (p. 20). 162 Japamāla, with which japa or recitation of mantra is done (p. 20). 163 Kalaśa (p. 20). 164 Literally, holding cintā, which is a name for the jñāna mudrā, or manual gesture so called (p. 20). ...
Sir John Woodroffe

The aphorisms of Śiva: the ŚivaSūtra with Bhāskara's commentary, ... - Page 78
Vasugupta, Mark S. G. Dyczkowski, Bhāskarabhaṭṭa - 1992 - 247 pages - Google eBook - Preview
and its impression, pure consciousness and cosmic consciousness, both are Mudra. " The first meaning leads naturally to the ... According to another popular etymology, Mudra means that which bestows bliss and dissolves away (dravayati) ...

Art, the integral vision: a volume of essay in felicitation of ...
Kapila Vatsyayan, Baidyanath Saraswati - 1994 - 336 pages - Snippet view
Ksemaraja, the commentator, expounds the meaning of mudra in the following ways: "It bestows (rati) joy (mudam), ie, it gives happiness; it stamps (mudrayati) ( the devotee) with the seal of the supreme Bhairava Consciousness; ...

Mudrā: a study of the symbolic gestures in Japanese Buddhist sculpture
- 1985 - 296 pages - No preview
Ernest Dale Saunders

Surviving nirvana: death of the Buddha in Chinese visual culture - Page 169
- 2010 - 355 pages - Preview
The Wheel-Turning Mudrā The mudrā in question is one that has both hands positioned in front of the chest, with the thumb of the upright, outward-facing right hand touching the last finger of a left hand that has turned inward. ...
Sonya S. Lee

Body Renewal: The Lost Art of Self-Repair - Page 206
- 2010 - 280 pages - Google eBook - Preview
The anal contraction, ashvini mudrā (horse gesture, named in Sanskrit, because of the characteristic way a horse puckers ... The urethral sphincter contraction , called vajroli mudrā (contraction of the phallic sphincter) or sahajroli ...
Jay Glaser

Myths and symbols in Indian art and civilization - Page 133
, Joseph Campbell - 1972 - 248 pages - Preview
His right hand, uplifted and carrying a rosary, is held in the gesture of teaching (vyākhyāna-mudrā). The object in the lowered left hand was left unfinished, together with many other minor details of the image, and is not clear enough ...
Heinrich Robert Zimmer

Pure Yoga - Page 18
Yogi Pranavananda, Tony Rodriquez, Kanshi Ram - 1997 - 189 pages - Preview
Mudras Generally speaking, the word Mudra is used to signify certain postures, contractions, gestures and positions of hands and fingers (such as Padma-mudra or symbol of the Lotus and Yoni- linga-mudra or symbol of ecstatic union) of ..

Siva Sutras: The Yoga of Supreme Identity - Page 101
Jaideva Singh - 1988 - 278 pages - Preview
Khecarl mudra is of various sorts. Saiva agama does not set any store by mudra in the sense of disposition of certain parts of the physical body. It interprets mudra in a higher sense in three ways, viz. (1) mudam (harfam) rati (dadati) ...

R̥gvedic legends
Prem Chand Shridhar - 2001 - 390 pages - Snippet view
"lopa luptah harso yasyah sa lopamudra. mudra harsah/mud. harsc/"yadva" modanarh mud/mudarh rati dadatiti mudra / loparh luptarh mudarh rati punardadatlti lopamudra/ yadva, modante.nayasamudra-sarh-pattih/ lopamudra sampattiryasyah sa ...

“The Secret Powers of Mudras

Mudras are gestures made with the hands to emote feelings. In the science of yogasana and pranayama specialized mudras are used to bring mind balance and balance of the cosmic elements within the being of the human body.

Mudras are hand face or body gestures that have a direct curative effect both, on mind as well as body. The word ‘mudra’ if analysed, is a complex word formed from the Sanskrit root word ‘mud’ which means that which gives joy and ‘dru ‘ which relates to the source. Therefore the two meanings conjoined together as mudra, would translate to that which delivers joy. The other usage of the word mudra was ‘seal’. Seals used as currency in ancient times bore the symbolic impression of a certain dynasty or rule. These seals were also called mudras. A mudra would therefore mean the deliverance of a characteristic impression of happiness or joy.

It is believed that the science of mudras became shrouded when words and language became powerful tools of expression. Originally, man communicated through sign language and barely expended energy through sound and speech. As the communication through sign language proliferated the knowledge of mudras grew further. Presently, detailed descriptions of Mudras are found in Tantra Shastra, Upasana Shastra, Nritya Shastra and Art of Sculpture. Today, we refer to the practice of mudras as a science as we exploit the use of these practices in conjunction with yogasana and pranayama. Along with the practice of certain asanas and vital breath control routines in pranayama, certain specific hand and body postures are required- these are the mudras ! Since both yogasana as well as pranayama have gained so much momentum in this past decade, the practice of certain mudras has also come into the forefront.

We often hear terms such as ‘science of mudras’, ‘healing through mudras’ rampantly used on yoga websites, books and literature related to yogasana and pranayama. Mudras are alluded to being very potent and efficacious in delivering their effects and yet we find that we know very little about this science.

Mudras are categorized under four main classes- the hasta mudras or hand postures, the head/face postures used in nritya shastra, the body postures or yoga mudras and the body locks or bandhas.

Just like most yogasanas have their benefits in enhancing the physical health of the body, similarly mudras too have a healing effect. Mudras work closely on balancing the five body elements- the pancha mahabootas or five vital elements of the body. These five vital elements of the body are air, fire, ether, earth and water. An imbalance in each of these elements in the body leads to disease.

Through prolonged and persistent practice mudras can bring about a miraculous change and improvement in our body system. The practice of mudras are potent enough to alter the physical , mental as well as moral thinking of an individual. Hasta Mudras are gestures performed with the palms of the hand. They are used to bring about emotional culturing, connect to the higher guides as also dispel ailments of the physical body. They are said to purge the negativities of both, the physical as well as the astral body of the human-being. According to the yogis of India, the human body is composed of atoms of the cosmic elements viz. earth, water, fire, ether and space.”

And from Yoga Journal:

From Hand to Heart

Discover the power of mudras (hand gestures) for cultivating inner peace, courage, and confidence.

By Kelly McGonigal

Yoga classes often begin and end with the hands in Anjali Mudra (Salutation Seal, sometimes called Prayer Position), as a reminder that your practice is a form of prayer or offering to your true Self. By joining your hands together like this, you make a physical gesture of union—a symbolic reference of the union of your individual sense of self and the universal Self, in which you are aware of the interconnectedness of all living beings. As you hold the gesture and infuse it with the intention of union, you might notice a shift take place in your mind and your heart; you might clearly see how to act from that sense of connection.

Mudra (hand gesture) is a method of citta-bhavana, or cultivating a specific state of mind. There are dozens of mudras, and each represents a certain quality, such as compassion, courage, or wisdom. It is believed that, by practicing mudra, you awaken the seeds of these states within you.

Mudras can be found in the art and rituals of many sacred traditions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, and hatha yoga. Many of the best-known mudras represent the qualities of a bodhisattva, a yogic warrior who fights fearlessly to end the suffering of all beings. The origins of specific mudras are unknown, but it is believed that each gesture is the natural outer expression of an enlightened inner state. You can think of mudras as the sign language that springs from an open mind and an awakened heart.

Practicing mudra during asana, meditation, pranayama, or kirtan (chanting) will help you quiet the background chatter of your mind. But the power of these seemingly simple hand gestures goes far beyond adding focus to your practice. Mudras can remind you of two important pieces of yogic wisdom. First, you are already whatever you seek to be. It's easy to see courage and wisdom in the stories and images of Hindu deities or the Buddha. It's much more difficult to see that those qualities reside in you. Mudras can remind you that these are not traits that you either have or don't have. They are states that you consciously choose to feel and express. Second, mudra practice can help you find a way to translate good intentions into skillful actions. Mudras are the bridge between your inner spiritual experience and your outer interactions with the world. Actions speak louder than words, and mudras are like prayers translated into physical form.

You can include mudras in your yoga practice in many ways, and they can add inspiration to any meditation. Choose one whose meaning matches the focus of your meditation—such as Lotus Mudra, which suggests heart opening, for lovingkindness meditation. To help you focus your mind and channel your energy during pranayama or kirtan, choose a mudra such as Dharmachakra Mudra to reflect a state of devotion. Combining mudra and asana can enhance the power of a pose. In a typical practice, it's easy to focus so much on the alignment of your knees and shoulder blades that you fail to notice the alignment of your mind. Adding a mudra reminds you of the meaning of a pose; Abhaya Mudra with a Warrior Pose, for example, will tap you into your fearlessness and compassion.

Perhaps the greatest gift of mudra is that it honors your deepest, most heartfelt reasons for showing up on the mat. Mudra can become the catalyst for a yoga practice that brings out the best in you. Try the five suggested mudras in asana or meditation to spark your inner compassion, strength, and wisdom.

Lotus Mudra

In Buddhism the lotus blossom represents a heart opening. The lotus flower blooms on the surface of water, with its roots deep below in mud—making it a symbol of light and beauty emerging from darkness. Practice Lotus Mudra in Vrksasana (Tree Pose), hands held at heart center. Feel connected to your roots, and remember that the greatest source of steadiness in life is an awakened heart. Or sit in Padmasana (Lotus Pose, shown here) and use this mudra as you practice metta (lovingkindness) meditation to assist in your own heart's awakening.

Bring the heels of the palms together, thumb tips and pinky fingertips touching. Keep your knuckles separate and let your fingers blossom like the petals of a flower.

Vajrapradama Mudra

Vajra means "thunderbolt," which is considered in yoga to be an expression of powerfully focused energy. In Buddhism, the thunderbolt represents the ultimate weapon against doubt. Vajrapradama Mudra symbolizes unshakable confidence, and practicing it can remind you of both your personal power and your faith in something greater. Practice this mudra in Vajrasana (Thunderbolt Pose) to let go of self-doubt, mistrust of others, or hopelessness in the face of obstacles.

Rest the hands on the heart center, with fingers crossing and thumbs wide. Feel the subtle movement of the breath under the hands.

Uttarabodhi Mudra

Uttara means "realization," and bodhi means "enlightenment." This mudra symbolizes the experience of nonseparateness, described in the Yoga Sutra as samadhi. Use this mudra to remind yourself that strength comes from interdependence, not independence. Practice in poses like Virabhadrasana I (Warrior Pose I) and Virabhadrasana III (Warrior Pose III). In a seated meditation, hold this mudra at heart level and bring to mind how connected you are to others.

Interlock the middle through pinky fingers, press the pointer fingers together, and pull the thumbs away from the pointer fingers, with the thumb tips touching and palms slightly separated.

Abhaya Mudra

Abhaya means "fearlessness." This mudra is a gesture of protection and courage, and a reminder that the true yogic warrior offers friendship, not attack. In Virabhadrasana II (Warrior II) practice this mudra as a way of dropping your sword. Raise the hand on the side of the lunging leg in Abhaya Mudra and let the back hand rest on the back thigh. For meditation bring both hands to Abhaya Mudra while sitting in Virasana (Hero Pose). Bring to mind who and what you are willing to fight for in life, through fearless and compassionate action.

Lift the arm, hand at shoulder height, elbow soft, and palm facing forward.

Dharmachakra Mudra

Dharmachakra translates as "wheel of dharma," and this gesture represents speaking your truth and serving from the heart. Dharmachakra Mudra connects you to your deepest desire to create, teach, heal, or help. Sit in Baddha Konasana (Bound Angle Pose) or another seated pose, and think of an area of your life to which you want to devote your energy. Sit with the questions, "What is the next step?" and "How can I serve?"

Bring the thumb tip of each hand to touch the tip of the index finger. Bring hands to heart level, right palm facing out and left hand facing the heart. The two hands can touch lightly, left middle fingertip to right thumb tip.

Kelly McGonigal teaches psychology, yoga, and meditation at Stanford University. She grounds her teaching in Buddhist philosophy. She is also the editor of the International Journal of Yoga Therapy. Learn more at

Mudra As Meditation

By Andrea Luchese, M.A.

My first exposure to Indian classical dance was at a dance camp intensive in Virginia some years ago. I was one of the few non-native adult participants, placed in beginners classes with children of Indian descent. We’d come from many parts of the country to study with the Dhananjayans’, highly acclaimed exponents of south India’s sacred dance tradition of Bharata Natyam.

One day, while practicing one of the steps in class, a senior disciple of my teachers approached me to correct the alignment of my arms, and the particular placement of my fingers, which were held in a mudra, or hand gesture, known as alapadma, which means fully-bloomed lotus. As she made subtle adjustments to my body she said, “Just wait until all of this clicks in place and you feel what this dance really does to you.” She meant that with enough practice, I would eventually be able to register how the deliberate placement of the body directs and effects energy in very particular ways.

For thousands of years the yogis of India have studied the body’s capacity to transmit higher frequencies of energy or light. Disciplines like yoga, and its cousin, Indian classical dance (which in south India was codified at least two thousand years ago) are in essence practices that are designed to bring the practitioner into sustained states of unitive consciousness, or connection with the Absolute. I refer to Indian classical dance, or Bharata Natyam specifically, as a practice of embodied spirituality in that it is through the body that one experiences union with the Divine. The architecture of Bharata Natyam, both in its steps and its language of mudras, supports this inner movement of deep internal connection. Like yoga, its ultimate aim is to unite the personal with the universal.

Since that dance camp, Bharata Natyam has become an integral part of my spiritual practice, along with sitting meditation, chanting, and focused inquiry. I have felt the tremendous capacity the body has to be a conduit of light, and how this capacity can be intensified by practices that support conscious movement and precise alignment. In addition to practicing Bharata Natyam, I also use mudra in moving meditations, and have occasionally experienced mudras spontaneously taking shape while sitting in meditation. Though Indian classical dance is an art form that takes years of dedicated practice to master, the beauty and wisdom of its language of mudra can be applied as a tool for meditation for anyone willing to give it a try.

In Indian dance mudras are positions of the hands used either decoratively or as a means to tell a story. The term mudra, however, has many meanings, and may refer not only to positioning of the hands, but also of the body as well. Mudras act like catalysts that can be used to direct con-sciousness. In Mudras: Yoga in Your Hands, Gertrud Hirschi explains: “These symbolic finger, eye, and body postures can vividly depict certain states or processes of consciousness. Conversely, specific positions can also lead to the states of con-sciousness that they symbolize.”

Various traditions and systems of healing recognize the hand as a map of the entire physical and energetic body. For example, in acupuncture (a treatment modality in Chinese medicine) meridians, or pathways of energy through which the life force flows, extend through the fingers. Needles or applied pressure to parts of the hand activate and direct energy through these channels and can help to heal disorders and imbalances in other areas of the body. In the yogic system, different centers in the body are recognized as vortices of energy called chakras. The five chakras situated along the spinal column are associated with the five fingers. Because energy lines run out from the chakras through the fingers, holding or moving the hands in or through mudra positions helps to activate these centers.

Below are two exercises that blend mudra and meditation. Rather than focusing on what the mudra can do, which in effect would be like prescribing a mudra for a specific purpose, I suggest doing the practice and seeing for yourself what it elicits. As you do the exercises, be aware of what happens in your own being in the way of thought, sensation, feeling, and movement of energy. It may be quite subtle and you may not notice much at first. See if you can be at ease with whatever arises, bearing witness with an open heart to your own inner experience.

Mukula to Avahitta
(Contraction & Expansion)

To begin, sit comfortably with your legs crossed, knees lower than hips (prop yourself up on a small cushion if this is not possible, or sit in a chair, with your feet flat on the floor), and your head, neck and trunk in a long line. For now, rest your hands on your knees and close your eyes. Take a moment to tune into your breathing by simply allowing your attention to rest on the movement of breath in and out of the body. Notice texture, rhythm, and temperature. Make no effort to change the breath, just notice it and see if you can feel the body being breathed. Feel the natural radiance of the spine and how this upright position supports a quiet dignity of being. If your attention drifts to thought or some other sensation, gently bring it back to rest on the breath and awareness of the body being breathed.

When the mind begins to quiet, cross the hands in front of the chest, wrist on top of wrist, letting the elbows rest at your sides. Close all the fingers up, so that the fingertips are in a cluster and pointing up (photo #1). This mudra is known as mukula, or flower bud. Next, open all the fingers up (thumbs point away from you, while pinkies point straight up) into avahitta mudra (photo #2). Avahitta means to hold in the hands and is made by linking both hands in alapadma (see description below). Continue moving back and forth slowly between mukula and avahitta mudras, synchronizing breath and movement. Exhale as you open your hands into avahitta, inhale as you close your hands in mukula. Repeat this cycle at least 10 times and notice what you can about how these movements affect your state of being. Notice where energy is moving freely and feel where it is not. The opening and closing of the hands like this mimics the movements of expansion and contraction seen in nature, throughout the cosmos, and in the unfolding of our lives. When you have finished cycling through the movements, place the hands back on the knees and linger here as long as you’d like. When you’re ready, slowly open your eyes.

Note: To practice placing the hands in avahitta mudra, begin with palms facing up, fingers spread and all on the same plane (horizontal with the ground). Lift the pinkies up (the ring finger will move too), and point the index finger and thumb down. This is the shape of alapadma, which when the hands are crossed one over the other becomes avahitta.

Anjali to Pushpaputa
(Gesture of Offering)

For this next meditation, begin either seated as before, or standing. If you are standing, position yourself in a comfortable stance, such as with the feet hip width apart and parallel. Though the legs should be straight, avoid locking the knees. Place your hands in front of your chest, in prayer position, or anjali mudra, with the palms together, fingertips pointing up (photo #3). Next, cup the hands, with the palms up and the outside edge of the hands and pinkies touching (photo #4). Rest the elbows at your sides. This mudra is called pushpaputa, or hands full of flowers. As the name implies, this is a gesture of offering. If an image of the Divine or a person or being arises spontaneously in your consciousness to whom you are making this offering, then tune in to what it is that is your hands are holding. Perhaps you are offering the receptivity symbolized by the empty shape of your hands. Maybe you see flower petals there. Raise the hands slightly until they are level with your chin, then point the fingertips down, as if making an offering (photo #5). As the fingers point down, lower the hands and bow the torso forward slightly. As your body returns to its upright position, bring your hands back into anjali mudra. Repeat this sequence at least 10 times, alternating between anjali and pushpaputa mudras in one continuous and slow movement.

Again, notice what these repetitive gestures evoke in you. Feel what emotions and sensations arise, and let them wash through, like a river through a channel. When you are ready, pause with your hands in anjali mudra until you feel that the meditation has come to a close. This series can be practiced with eyes open or closed. If your eyes are open, allow the gaze to track with the hands. As the hands lift, look upward. As the hands lower and the torso bows, lower the gaze. When the hands return to anjali mudra, look straight ahead.

Gesture-related words:

  • 1 anubhāva (gesture)
  • 2 anubhāvana (gesture)
  • 3 anurāgeṅgita (gesture)
  • 4 abhinaya (gesture)
  • 5 abhinīti (gesture)
  • 6 ākāra (gesture)
  • 7 ākāragupti (gesture)
  • 8 ākāragūhana (gesture)
  • 9 ākāragopana (gesture)
  • 10 ākāramat (gesture)
  • 11 āṅgika (gesture)
  • 12 iṅga (gesture)
  • 13 iṅgita (gesture)
  • 14 iṅgitakovida (gesture)
  • 15 iṅgitajña (gesture)
  • 16 carcarikā (gesture)
  • 17 ceṣṭa (gesture)
  • 18 ceṣṭā (gesture)
  • 19 ceṣṭita (gesture)
  • 20 turaganīlatāla (gesture)
  • 21 toyadāna (gesture)
  • 22 trayodaśī (gesture)
  • 23 dvicaturaśraka (gesture)
  • 24 namas (gesture)
  • 25 nāṭita (gesture)
  • 26 nāṭya (gesture)
  • 27 pramāṇa (gesture)
  • 28 bhāvaceṣṭita (gesture)
  • 29 rūp (gesture)
  • 30 valgita (gesture)
  • 31 vāmaka (gesture)
  • 32 viceṣṭita (gesture)
  • 33 vilasita (gesture)
  • 34 vilāsa (gesture)
  • 35 vividha (gesture)
  • 36 śarīrākṛti (gesture)
  • 37 śāṇī (gesture)
  • 38 śṛṅgāraceṣṭā (gesture)
  • 39 śṛṅgāraceṣṭita (gesture)
  • 40 śṛṅgāraṇa (gesture)
  • 41 saṃketa (gesture)
  • 42 saṃjñā (gesture)
  • 43 saṃjñita (gesture)
  • 44 samākarṇitaka (gesture)
  • 45 samāceṣṭita (gesture)
  • 46 sābhinayam (gesture)
  • 47 sūc (gesture)
  • 48 haraṇa (gesture)

(H2) anu-bhāva [p= 36,3] [L=6923] m. sign or indication of a feeling (bhāva) by look or gesture Kpr. &c
[L=6924] dignity , authority , consequence
[L=6925] firm opinion , ascertainment , good resolution , belief.

(H2) anu-bhāvana [L=6928] n. the act of indicating feelings by sign or gesture Sa1h.

(H3) anurāge* ṅgita [p= 37,2] [L=7086] n. gesture expressive of passion.

(H1) abhi-naya [p= 63,3] [L=11594] » 1. abhi- √nī.
(H2) abhi-naya [p= 64,3] [L=11697] m. (indication of a passion or purpose by look , gesture , &c ) acting , dramatic action (expressive of sentiment)

(H2) abhi-nīti [L=11703] f. gesture , expressive gesticulation L.
[L=11704] friendship , civility L.
(H2) abhi-nīti [p= 1315,1] [L=311970] (also) persuasion, Kir.

(H1) ā-kāra [p= 126,3] [L=22093] °raṇa , &c » ā- √kṛ.
(H2) ā-kāra 1 [p= 127,2] [L=22207] m. (ifc. f(ā). R. i , 28 , 24 Ragh. xii , 41) form , figure , shape , stature , appearance , external gesture or aspect of the body , expression of the face (as furnishing a clue to the disposition of mind) Mn. MBh. &c

(H3) ā-kāra--gupti [L=22208] f. concealing or suppressing (any expression of the face or any gesture that might show) one's feelings , dissimulation L.

(H3) ā-kāra--gūhana [L=22209] n. concealing or suppressing (any expression of the face or any gesture that might show) one's feelings , dissimulation L.

(H3) ā-kāra--gopana [L=22210] n. concealing or suppressing (any expression of the face or any gesture that might show) one's feelings , dissimulation L.

(H3) ā-kāra--mat [L=22211] mfn. with √vah , " to behave with a particular behaviour " , affect a gesture or appearance Ra1jat.

(H2) āṅgika [p= 131,1] [L=22834] mfn. expressed by bodily action or attitude or gesture &c (as dramatic sentiment , passion , &c ) Sa1h. &c
[L=22835] a player on a tabor or drum L.

(H2) iṅga [p= 164,1] [L=28639] mfn. movable , locomotive MBh.
[L=28640] surprising , wonderful L.
(H2B) iṅga [L=28641] m. a hint or sign , an indication of sentiment by gesture , knowledge L.

(H2) iṅgita [L=28646] n. palpitation
[L=28647] change of the voice , internal motion , motion of various parts of the body as indicating the intentions
[L=28648] hint , sign , gesture
[L=28649] aim , intention , real but covert purpose Mn. R. MBh. Sus3r. Hit. Ragh. &c
(H2) iṅgita [p= 1320,3] [L=321150] (in comp.)

(H3) iṅgita--kovida [p= 164,1] [L=28650] mfn. understanding signs , acquainted with the gesture of another , skilled in the expression or interpretation of internal sentiments by external gesture.

(H3) iṅgita--jña [L=28651] mfn. understanding signs , acquainted with the gesture of another , skilled in the expression or interpretation of internal sentiments by external gesture.

(H2) carcarikā [p= 390,1] [L=72341] f. a kind of gesture Vikr. iv.

(H2) ceṣṭa [p= 402,1] [L=74972] m. " moving " , a kind of fish (tapasvin) L.
(H2B) ceṣṭa [L=74973] n. moving the limbs , gesture Mn. vii , 63
(H2B) ceṣṭa [L=74974] n. behaviour , manner of life Hariv. 5939

(H2B) ceṣṭā [L=74975] f. ( Pa1n2. 2-3 , 12) moving any limb , gesture Mn. vii f. Ya1jn5. MBh. &c (ifc. Ragh. ii , 43)
(H2B) ceṣṭā [L=74976] f. action , activity , effort , endeavour , exertion A1s3vS3r. i S3vetUp. ii , 9 (ifc.) Mn. iv , 65 Bhag. &c
(H2B) ceṣṭā [L=74977] f. doing , performing Mn. i , 65
(H2B) ceṣṭā [L=74978] f. behaving , manner of life Mn. vii , 194 KapS. iii , 51 VarBr2S. (ifc.) &c
(H2B) ceṣṭā [L=74979] f. cf. a- , naṣṭa- , niś-.
(H2) ceṣṭā [L=74988] f. » °ṭa.

(H2) ceṣṭita [L=74995] mfn. set in motion W.
[L=74996] done with effort , exerted W.
[L=74997] done S3ak. iii , 23÷24 (v.l.) ; v , 9
[L=74998] frequented Ragh. xi , 51
(H2B) ceṣṭita [L=74999] n. moving any limb , gesture Mn. Sus3r. VarBr2S.
(H2B) ceṣṭita [L=75000] n. doing , action , behaviour , manner of life Mn. MBh. R. KapS. iii , 59 ff. S3ak. &c (ifc. f(ā). Bhar. xxxiv , 118) .

(H4) turá--ga---nīla-tāla [p= 450,3] [L=85990] m. N. of a gesture PSarv.

(H3) tóya--dāna [p= 456,1] [L=87196] n. N. of a gesture PSarv.

(H3B) tráyo--daśī [p= 457,2] [L=87491.20] f. the 13th day of a half-moon Mn. &c
(H3B) tráyo--daśī [L=87491.25] f. N. of a kind of gesture PSarv.

(H3) dvi--catur-aśraka [p= 504,3] [L=98430] m. N. of a partic. gesture or posture Vikr. (v.l. catur-asr°).

(H2) námas [p= 528,1] [L=103845] n. bow , obeisance , reverential salutation , adoration (by gesture or word ; often with dat. e.g. rāmāya namaḥ , salutation or glory to rāma , often ind. [g. svar-ādi] ; namas- √kṛ , to utter a salutation , do homage ; ind.p. °mas-kṛ́tya [ AV. TS. &c ] or °mas-kṛtvā [ MBh. BhP. ] ; námas-kṛta , worshipped , adored) RV. &c
[L=103846] food Naigh. ii , 7
[L=103847] a thunderbolt , ii , 20
[L=103848] gift , donation L.
(H2B) námas [L=103849] m. (?) an inarticulate cry L.

(H2) nāṭita [p= 534,2] [L=105328] n. mimic representation , a gesture (in comp. also °taka) Ka1lid. Ratna7v. Ba1lar. &c

(H2) nāṭya [L=105333] n. dancing , mimic representation , dramatic art Ka1v. Pur. &c (°ṭyena ind. with a gesture Ka1lid. &c )
[L=105334] the costume of an actor BhP. (cf. below) .

(H2) pramāṇa [p= 685,3] [L=135796] n. (ifc. f(ā).) measure , scale , standard
[L=135797] measure of any kind (as size , extent , circumference , length , distance , weight , multitude , quantity , duration) Ka1tyS3r. Kat2hUp. Mn. &c (instr. " on an average " Jyot. )
[L=135798] prosodical length (of a vowel) Pa1n2. 1-1 , 50 Sch.
[L=135799] measure in music MBh. ( Ni1lak. )
[L=135800] accordance of the movements in dancing with music and song Sam2gi1t.
[L=135801] measure of physical strength S3ak. (cf. comp. below)
[L=135802] the first term in a rule of three sum Col.
[L=135803] the measure of a square i.e. a side of it S3ulbas.
[L=135804] principal , capital (opp. to interest) Col.
[L=135805] right measure , standard , authority Gr2S3rS. Mn. MBh. &c (pramāṇam bhavatī , " your ladyship is the authority or must judge " Nal. ; in this sense also m. and f. sg. and pl. e.g. vedāḥ pramāṇāḥ , " the vedas are authorities " MBh. ; strī pramāṇī yeṣām , " they whose authority is a woman " Pa1n2. Sch.)
[L=135806] a means of acquiring pramā or certain knowledge (6 in the vedā*nta , viz. pratyakṣa , perception by the senses ; anumāna , inference ; upamāna , analogy or comparison ; śabda or āpta-vacana , verbal authority , revelation ; an-upalabdhi or abhāva-pratyakṣa , non-perception or negative proof ; arthā*patti , inference from circumstances ; the nyāya admits only 4 , excluding the last two ; the sāṃkhya only 3 , viz. pratyakṣa , anumāna and śabda ; other schools increase the number to 9 by adding sambhava , equivalence ; aitihya , tradition or fallible testimony ; and ceṣṭā , gesture IW. 60 &c &c )
[L=135807] any proof or testimony or evidence Ya1jn5. MBh. Ka1v. &c
[L=135808] a correct notion , right perception (= pramā) Tarkas.
[L=135809] oneness , unity L.
[L=135810] = nitya L.
(H2B) pramāṇa [L=135811] m. (cf. n.) N. of a large fig-tree on the bank of the Ganges MBh.

(H3) bhāvá--ceṣṭita [p= 754,2] [L=150226] n. amorous gesture , wanton sport BrahmaP.

Westergaard Dhatupatha links: 35.79
(H1) rūp [p= 885,3] [L=179061]
(prob. Nom. fr. rūpa) cl.10 P. ( Dha1tup. xxxv , 79) rūpayati , to form , figure , represent (esp. on the stage) , exhibit by gesture , act , feign Hariv. Ka1v. BhP. &c ;

to view , inspect , contemplate Kir. viii , 26 Pa1n2. 3-1 , 25 Sch. ;

(A1. °yate) to show one's self , appear Vop.


(H2) valgita [p= 928,2] [L=188212] mfn. leaped , jumped. gone by bounds or leaps (n. impers.) Hariv. VarBr2S.
[L=188213] fluttering , moving to and fro Ka1vya7d. BhP.
[L=188214] sounding well Hariv.
(H2B) valgita [L=188215] n. a bound , jump , spring , gallop of a horse MBh. R.
(H2B) valgita [L=188216] n. motion , gesture Bhar.
(H2B) valgita [L=188217] n. leaping for joy MBh. S3is3.
(H2B) valgita [L=188218] n. shaking , fluttering BhP.

(H2) vāmaka 1 [p= 941,1] [L=190926] mfn. (for 2. » col.3) one who vomits MW.
(H2) vāmaka 2 [p= 941,3] [L=191079] mf(ikā)n. (for 1. » col.1) left , not right VarBr2S. Ma1lati1m.
[L=191080] adverse , cruel , rough , hard Ka1lP.
(H2B) vāmaka 2 [L=191081] m. a partic. mixed tribe MBh.
(H2B) vāmaka 2 [L=191082] m. N. of a king of kāśi Car.
(H2B) vāmaka 2 [L=191083] m. of a son of bhajamāna VP.
(H2B) vāmaka 2 [L=191084] m. of a cakra-vartin Buddh.
(H2B) vāmaka 2 [L=191085] (prob.) n. a kind of gesture Vikr.

(H3) vi-° ceṣṭita [p= 959,2] [L=194897] mfn. struggled , striven , exerted &c
[L=194898] effected , produced Hit.
[L=194899] investigated , inquired into W.
[L=194900] unconsidered , ill-judged ib.
(H3B) vi-° ceṣṭita [L=194901] n. motion (of the body) , gesture Ka1v. Sus3r.
(H3B) vi-° ceṣṭita [L=194902] n. action , exertion , conduct , behaviour Ya1jn5. MBh. &c
(H3B) vi-° ceṣṭita [L=194903] n. evil or malicious act , machination W.

(H3) vi-° lasita [p= 985,1] [L=199648] mfn. gleaming , glittering , shining forth , appearing BhP.
[L=199649] played , sported (n. also impers.) Ka1v. Katha1s.
[L=199650] moving to and fro BhP.
(H3B) vi-° lasita [L=199651] n. flashing , quivering (of lightning) Vikr. Prab.
(H3B) vi-° lasita [L=199652] n. appearing , manifestation (vidyā , v° manifestation of knowledge) Cat.
(H3B) vi-° lasita [L=199653] n. sport play , pastime , dalliance Ka1v. Katha1s.
(H3B) vi-° lasita [L=199654] n. any action or gesture Ragh.

(H2) vi-lāsa [L=199655] m. (ifc. f(ā).) shining forth , appearance , manifestation , R2it. Gi1t.
[L=199656] sport , play , pastime , pleasure , diversion (esp. with women &c ; but also applied to any playful action or gesture) MBh. Ka1v. &c (°sāya , " for sport ")
[L=199657] coquetry , affectation of coyness , wantonness (a form of feminine gesture considered as indicative of amorous sentiments) Hariv. Ka1v. Das3ar. Sa1h.
[L=199658] liveliness , joviality (considered as a masculine virtue) Das3ar. ii , 9
[L=199659] wantonness , lust Das3ar. Sa1h.
[L=199660] grace , charm , beauty BhP.
[L=199661] N. of a gram. wk.
[L=199662] (with ācārya) of a preceptor Cat.
(H2B) vi-lāsa [L=199663] n. (and f(ā).) N. of a metre VarBr2S.

(H3) ví--vidha [p= 952,2] [L=193548] » s.v.
(H1) vi-vidha [p= 988,1] [L=200200] mf(ā)n. of various sorts , manifold , divers Mn. MBh. &c
(H1B) vi-vidha [L=200201] m. a partic. ekā*ha S3a1n3khS3r.
(H1B) vi-vidha [L=200202] n. variety of action or gesture MW.

(H3) śarīrā* kṛti [p= 1058,1] [L=213912] f. ( Pat. ) bodily gesture or mien.

(H1B) śāṇī́ 3 [p= 1063,3] [L=215124] f. » below.
(H2) śāṇī [L=215131] f. a hempen cloth or garment MBh.
[L=215132] ragged or torn raiment , the tattered clothes of a Jain ascetic L.
[L=215133] a single breadth of cloth given to a student at his investiture W.
[L=215134] a small tent or screen ib.
[L=215135] gesture , gesticulation ib.

(H3) śṛṅgāra--ceṣṭā [p= 1087,3] [L=220637] f. ( Ragh. ) love-gesture , any outward action indicating love.

(H3) śṛṅgāra--ceṣṭita [L=220638] n. ( Sa1h. ) love-gesture , any outward action indicating love.

(H2) śṛṅgāraṇa [p= 1088,1] [L=220703] n. (with pāśupatas) feigning love , amatory gesture or behaviour Sarvad.

(H1) saṃ-keta [p= 1126,3] [L=228200] m. (fr. saṃ- √cit) agreement , compact , stipulation , assignation with (gen. , esp. with a lover) , engagement , appointment (acc. with √ kṛ , or grah or dā or Caus. of √ kḷp , " to make an agreement or appointment " or " appoint a place of meeting with any person " [gen. or instr. or instr. with saha , samam , mithaḥ] ; ibc. " according to agreement " , " by appointment ") MBh. Ka1v. &c
[L=228201] convention , consent MBh.
[L=228202] intimation , hint , allusion , preconcerted sign or signal or gesture (acc. with √ kṛ , " to give a signal ") Katha1s. Gi1t.
[L=228203] a short explanation of a grammatical rule (= 2. śailī q.v.) MW.
[L=228204] condition , provision ib.
[L=228205] N. of a Comm. on the kāvya-prakāśa and on the harṣa-carita
[L=228206] pl. N. of a people (cf. sāketa) Ma1rkP.

(H1) saṃ- √ jñā [p= 1133,3] [L=229367]
P. A1. -jānāti , -jānīte , (A1.) to agree together , be of the same opinion , be in harmony with (loc. ; accord. to Pa1n2. 2-3 , 22 , also instr. or acc.) RV. AV. VS. S3Br. ;

(A.) to obey (dat.) AitBr. ;

(A1.) to appoint , assign , intend (for any purpose) , destine ib. ;

(only ind.p. -jñāya) to direct , order , command Hariv. ;

to acknowledge , recognize , own Pa1n2. 1-3 , 46 Sch. ;

(P.) to acknowledge or claim as one's own , take possession of SaddhP. ;

(P.) to think of. recollect sorrowfully (with acc. or gen.) Pa1n2. Vop. ;

A1. to know well , understand R. ;

to watch for Bhat2t2. : Caus. -jñāpayati , °te , to cause to be of the same opinion or agree together AV. AitBr. ;

to cause to acquiesce or agree in (euphemistically said of a sacrificial victim , which ought not to be led forcibly to its death but made to resign itself) S3Br. Gr2S3rS. MBh. BhP. ;

to appease , satisfy MBh. Ka1lid. ;

to make to be understood or known , cause to understand S3Br. ;

to make signs to (acc.) , communicate or make anything known by signs Mr2icch. Hcar. ;

to command , enjoin , instruct Hariv.

(H2B) saṃ-jñā 2 [L=229369] f. » below
(H2) saṃ-jñā́ [L=229381] f. (ifc. f(ā).) agreement , mutual understanding , harmony TBr. S3Br. Katha1s.
[L=229382] consciousness , clear knowledge or understanding or notion or conception S3Br. &c
[L=229383] a sign , token , signal , gesture (with the hand , eyes &c ; saṃjñām- √kṛ or dā , " to give a signal ") MBh. Ka1v. &c
[L=229384] direction (in a-kṛtas° , " one who has received no direction ") MBh.
[L=229385] a track , footstep BhP.
[L=229386] a name , appellation , title , technical term (ifc. = " called , named ") Nir. Mn. MBh. &c
[L=229387] (in gram.) the name of anything thought of as standing by itself , any noun having a special meaning (saṃjñāyām therefore denotes " [used] in some peculiar sense rather than in its strictly etymological meaning " e.g. as a proper name) Pa1n2. 1-1 , 34 ; 2 , 53 &c
[L=229388] a technical expression in grammar (» -sūtra)
[L=229389] (with Buddhists) perception (one of the 5 skandhas q.v.) Dharmas. 22 MWB. 109
[L=229390] N. of the gāyatrī (q.v.) L.
[L=229391] of a partic. high number Buddh.
[L=229392] N. of a daughter of tvaṣṭṛ or viśva-karman (the wife of the Sun and mother of manu , yama and yamī) Hariv. Pur.

(H3) saṃ-° jñita [L=229430] mfn. made known , communicated R.
[L=229431] apprised by a sign or gesture Ra1jat.
[L=229432] called , named , termed (generally ifc.) MaitrUp. Mn. MBh. &c

(H2) sam-ākarṇitaka [p= 1158,3] [L=234010] n. any gesture which expresses the act of listening (ena = " with an attitude of listening " ; as a stage direction) Ba1lar.

(H1) sam-ā-ceṣṭita [p= 1159,2] [L=234101] n. ( √ ceṣṭ) gesture , procedure , behaviour , conduct Ka1d.

(H1) sā́bhinayam [p= 1204,3] [L=242167] ind. with dramatic gesture or gesticulations , pantomimically S3ak.

Westergaard Dhatupatha links: 35.21
(H1) sūc [p= 1241,1] [L=250993]
(rather Nom. fr. sūca and sūci below) cl.10 P. ( Dha1tup. xxxv , 21) sūcayati , to point out , indicate , show , manifest , reveal , betray (in dram. = " to indicate by gesture , communicate by signs , represent ") MaitrUp. MBh. Ka1v. &c ;

to trace out , ascertain , espy MW. : Pass. sūcyate (aor. asūci) , to be pointed out or indicated Ka1v. Katha1s. &c : Intens. sosūcyate Pat. on Pa1n2. 3-1 , 22.


(H2) haraṇa [p= 1289,1] [L=260758] mf(ā or ī)n. (only ifc.) carrying , holding , containing (e.g. bali-haraṇī , darvī , " a ladle containing an oblation ") A1s3vGr2.
[L=260759] taking away. removing (e.g. rajo-h° " removing dust ") Kaus3.
(H2B) haraṇa [L=260760] m. " taker " , a hand L.
(H2B) haraṇa [L=260761] m. an arm L.
(H2B) haraṇa [L=260762] m. Michelia Champaca L.
(H2B) haraṇa [L=260763] n. the act of carrying or bringing or fetching. Ka1tyS3r. MBh. &c
(H2B) haraṇa [L=260764] n. offering Ka1tyS3r. Gaut.
(H2B) haraṇa [L=260765] n. carrying off , robbing , abduction Gaut. Mn. MBh. &c
(H2B) haraṇa [L=260766] n. removing , destroying Sus3r. VarBr2S.
(H2B) haraṇa [L=260767] n. dividing , division Col.
(H2B) haraṇa [p= 1289,2] [L=260768] n. a nuptial present (= -yautaka) MBh.
(H2B) haraṇa [L=260769] n. a gift to a student at his initiation W.
(H2B) haraṇa [L=260770] n. fodder given to a stallion (= vāḍaba-h°) Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 6-2 , 65
(H2B) haraṇa [L=260771] n. ( L. also " a partic. gesture " [esp. of an archer in shooting] ; " boiling water " ; " semen virile " ; " gold ") .
(H3) haraṇa [p= 1302,1] [L=263629]

Mudra Words:

mudrā--° kepa [L=165552]
°drā*k°) m. taking away or removing a seal MW.

(H3) (
mudrā--dhāraa [L=165555]
" wearing a seal-ring "
(H3) n.
mudrā--rākasa [L=165563]
" rākasa (N. of a minister) and the seal-ring " , N. of a celebrated drama by viśākha-datta

(H3) n.
mudrā--sthāna [L=165571]
the place (on the finger) for a seal-ring S3ak.

(H3) n.
mudraya [L=165574]
P. °yati , to seal , stamp , print , mark Hariv. Ka1v.
(H2) Nom.
mudrikā [L=165575]
a little seal , seal , seal-ring MBh.



partic. surgical instrument Sus3r.

of partic. positions or intertwinings of the fingers (= mudrā q.v.) Pan5car.
(H2) f.
[L=165576]stamp , impression , stamped coin
[L=165577]a sealed or signed paper
mudrita [L=165580]
sealed , stamped , impressed , printed , marked Ka1v. Ka1m.

Ka1v. Katha1s. (nidrā-m° sunk in sleep Das3. )



partic. forms (as the fingers ; cf. mudrā) Pan5car.
mudrita [L=165585]
impressing a seal on (loc.) Hit.

(H2) mfn.
[L=165581]contracted , closed , sealed up
[L=165582]strung , bound
[L=165583]unblown (as a flower)
[L=165584]intertwined in
(H2B) n.


pra-hara [p= 700,3] [L=138530]
» pra-hṛṣ.
pra-hara [p= 701,2] [L=138676]
erection (or greater erection) of the male organ Car.

°ak , with loc. " to delight in ") MBh. Ka1v. &c


(H2) m.
[L=138677]erection of the hair , extreme joy , thrill of delight , rapture (