Sanskrit Words for Breath
This is only a small selection – Sanskrit has a huge vocabulary for experiences and processes related to yoga meditation. Please excuse the rough formatting.
Note that only the BLUE underlined numbers, such as [p= 24,]
are working links to the Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, which lists 188 words in a reverse search for “breath.”
(fr. √ an) , face
|āná [p= 139,3]||m.|
|exhaling the breath through the nose|
|inhalation , breath inspired , breathing , blowing|
without breathing between , in one breath , without interruption , uno tenore AitBr.
|(H2) an-avā* nam [L=5365]||ind.|
(variously derived fr. an , to breathe ; at , to move ; vā , to blow ; cf. tmán) the breath RV.
RV. AV. &c
|the soul , principle of life and sensation |
e.g. ātmán (Ved. loc.) dhatte , or karoti , " he places in himself " , makes his own TS. v S3Br. ; ātmanā akarot , " he did it himself " Ka1d. ; ātmanā vi- √yuj , " to lose one's life " Mn. vii , 46 ; ātman in the sg. is used as reflexive pronoun for all three persons and all three genders e.g. ātmānaṃ sā hanti , " she strikes herself " ; putram ātmanaḥ spṛṣṭvā nipetatuḥ , " they two having touched their son fell down " R. ii , 64 , 28 ; see also below s.v. ātmanā ]
|the individual soul , self , abstract individual [|
ifc. e.g. karmā*tman , &c ) RV. x , 97 , 11 , &c
|essence , nature , character , peculiarity (often |
|the person or whole body considered as one and opposed to the separate members of the body |
Ragh. i , 14 Ra1matUp.
|the body |
ifc.) " the understanding , intellect , mind " » naṣṭā*tman , mandā*°
cf. paramā*tman) AV. x , 8 , 44 VS. xxxii , 11 S3Br. xiv , &c
|the highest personal principle of life , brahma (|
ṛti) firmness L.
|the sun |
L. ; [Old Germ. a1tum ; Angl.Sax. oedhm ; Mod. Germ. Athem , Odem ; Gk. ἀϋτμήν , (?).]
|a son |
granting breath or life RV. x , 121 , 2.
|(H3) ātma--dā́ [p= 135,2] [L=23527]||mfn.|
, the word we are more familiar with in terms of breath, means basically, filled with the breath, and more: “the breath of life, breath, respiration, spirit, vitality;”
(H2) prāṇa 1 [p= 701,3] [L=138763] mfn. (for 2. » [p= 705,1].) filled , full L.
(H2) prā* ṇá 2 [p= 705,1] [L=139500] m. (ifc. f(ā). ; for 1. » under √ prā , p.701) the breath of life , breath , respiration spirit vitality
[L=139501] life RV. &c (prā*ṇān with √ muc or √ hā or pari- √ tyaj , " to resign or quit life " ; with √ rakṣ , " to save life " ; with ni- √han , " to destroy life " ; tvam me prā*ṇaḥ , " thou art to me as dear as life " ; often ifc. ; cf. pati- , mā*na-pr°)
[L=139502] a vital organ vital air (3 in number , viz. prā*ṇa , apā*na and vyāna AitBr. TUp. Sus3r. ; usually 5 , viz. the preceding with sam-āna and , ud-āna S3Br. MBh. Sus3r. &c cf. MWB. 242 ; or with the other vital organs 6 S3Br. ; or 7 AV. Br. Mun2d2Up. ; or 9 AV. TS. Br. ; or 10 S3Br. ; pl. the 5 organs of vitality or sensation , viz. prā*ṇa , vāc , cakṣus , śrotra , manas , collectively ChUp. ii , 7 , i ; or = nose , mouth , eyes and ears GopBr. S3rS. Mn. iv , 143)
[p= 705,2] [L=139503] air inhaled , wind AV. S3Br.
[L=139504] breath (as a sign of strength), vigour , energy , power MBh. R. &c (sarvaprā*ṇena or -prā*ṇaiḥ , " with all one's strength " or " all one's heart " ; cf. yathā-prā*ṇam)
[L=139505] a breath (as a measure of time , or the time requisite for the pronunciation of 10 long syllables = 1÷6 vināḍikā) Var. A1ryabh. VP.
[L=139506] N. of a kalpa (the 6th day in the light half of brahmā's month) Pur.
[L=139507] (in sāṃkhya) the spirit (= puruṣa) Tattvas.
[L=139508] (in vedānta) the spirit identified with the totality of dreaming spirits Veda7ntas. RTL. 35 (cf. prāṇā*tman)
[L=139509] poetical inspiration W.
[L=139510] myrrh L.
[L=139511] a N. of the letter y Up.
[L=139512] of a sāman Ta1n2d2Br. (vasiṣṭhasya prā*ṇā*pā*nau A1rshBr. )
[L=139513] of brahmā L.
[L=139514] of viṣṇu RTL. 106
[L=139515] of a vasu BhP.
[L=139516] of a son of the vasu dhara Hariv.
[L=139517] of a marut Ya1jn5. Sch.
[L=139518] of a son of dhātṛ Pur.
[L=139519] of a son of vidhātṛ BhP.
[L=139520] of a ṛṣi in the 2nd manv-antara Hariv.
(H2) prā* ṇa [p= 1330,3] [L=337000] (in comp.)
(for 2. » [p= 705,1].) filled , full L.
|(H2) prāṇa 1 [p= 701,3] [L=138763]||mfn.|
(ifc. f(ā). ; for 1. » under √ prā , p.701) the breath of life , breath , respiration spirit vitality
|(H2) prā* ṇá 2 [p= 705,1] [L=139500]||m.|
RV. &c (prā*ṇān with √ muc or √ hā or pari- √ tyaj , " to resign or quit life " ; with √ rakṣ , " to save life " ; with ni- √han , " to destroy life " ; tvam me prā*ṇaḥ , " thou art to me as dear as life " ; often ifc. ; cf. pati- , mā*na-pr°)
prā*ṇa , apā*na and vyāna AitBr. TUp. Sus3r. ; usually 5 , viz. the preceding with sam-āna and , ud-āna S3Br. MBh. Sus3r. &c cf. MWB. 242 ; or with the other vital organs 6 S3Br. ; or 7 AV. Br. Mun2d2Up. ; or 9 AV. TS. Br. ; or 10 S3Br. ; pl. the 5 organs of vitality or sensation , viz. prā*ṇa , vāc , cakṣus , śrotra , manas , collectively ChUp. ii , 7 , i ; or = nose , mouth , eyes and ears GopBr. S3rS. Mn. iv , 143)
|[L=139502]||a vital organ vital air (3 in number , viz. |
|[p= 705,2] [L=139503]||air inhaled , wind |
MBh. R. &c (sarvaprā*ṇena or -prā*ṇaiḥ , " with all one's strength " or " all one's heart " ; cf. yathā-prā*ṇam)
|[L=139504]||breath (as a sign of strength), vigour , energy , power |
÷6 vināḍikā) Var. A1ryabh. VP.
|[L=139505]||a breath (as a measure of time , or the time requisite for the pronunciation of 10 long syllables = 1|
of a kalpa (the 6th day in the light half of brahmā's month) Pur.
sāṃkhya) the spirit (= puruṣa) Tattvas.
vedānta) the spirit identified with the totality of dreaming spirits Veda7ntas. RTL. 35 (cf. prāṇā*tman)
|[L=139509]||poetical inspiration |
N. of the letter y Up.
sāman Ta1n2d2Br. (vasiṣṭhasya prā*ṇā*pā*nau A1rshBr. )
|[L=139512]||of a |
viṣṇu RTL. 106
|[L=139515]||of a |
vasu dhara Hariv.
|[L=139516]||of a son of the |
marut Ya1jn5. Sch.
|[L=139517]||of a |
|[L=139518]||of a son of |
|[L=139519]||of a son of |
ṛṣi in the 2nd manv-antara Hariv.
|[L=139520]||of a |
|(H2) prā* ṇa [p= 1330,3] [L=337000]||(in |
has an intricate meaning, if we look at it as prana + yamayama
a rein , curb , bridle RV. v , 61 , 2
|(H2) yáma [p= 846,1] [L=170382]||m.|
ib. viii , 103 , 10
|[L=170383]||a driver , charioteer |
vācām , restraint of words , silence) BhP.
|[L=170384]||the act of checking or curbing , suppression , restraint (with |
opp. to niyama , a minor observance ; in Ya1jn5. iii , 313 ten yamas are mentioned , sometimes only five) Mn. MBh. &c
|[L=170385]||self-control forbearance , any great moral rule or duty (as |
yoga) self-restraint (as the first of the eight aṅgas or means of attaining mental concentration) IW. 93
|[L=170387]||any rule or observance |
(ā́ or ī́)n. twin-born , twin , forming a pair RV. &c
|(H2B) yamá [L=170388]||mf|
a twin , one of a pair or couple , a fellow (du. " the twins " N. of the aśvins and of their twin children by mādrī , called nakula and saha-deva ; yamau mithunau , twins of different sex) ib.
|(H2B) yáma [L=170389]||m.|
a symbolical N. for the number " two " Hcat.
|(H2B) yáma [L=170390]||m.|
N. of the god who presides over the pitṛs (q.v.) and rules the spirits of the dead RV. &c IW. 18 ; 197 , 198 &c RTL. 10 ; 16 ; 289 &c (he is regarded as the first of men and born from vivasvat , " the Sun " , and his wife saraṇyū ; while his brother , the seventh manu , another form of the first man , is the son of vivasvat and saṃjñā , the image of saraṇyū ; his twin-sister is yamī , with whom he resists sexual alliance , but by whom he is mourned after his death , so that the gods , to make her forget her sorrow , create night ; in the veda he is called a king or saṃgamano janānām , " the gatherer of men " , and rules over the departed fathers in heaven , the road to which is guarded by two broad-nosed , four-eyed , spotted dogs , the children of śaramā q.v. ; in Post-vedic mythology he is the appointed Judge and " Restrainer " or " Punisher " of the dead , in which capacity he is also called dharmarāja or dharma and corresponds to the Greek Pluto and to Minos ; his abode is in some region of the lower world called yama-pura ; thither a soul when it leaves the body , is said to repair , and there , after the recorder , citra-gupta , has read an account of its actions kept in a book called agra-saṃdhānā , it receives a just sentence ; in MBh. yama is described as dressed in blood-red garments , with a glittering form , a crown on his head , glowing eyes and like varuṇa , holding a noose , with which he binds the spirit after drawing it from the body , in size about the measure of a man's thumb ; he is otherwise represented as grim in aspect , green in colour , clothed in red , riding on a buffalo , and holding a club in one hind and noose in the other ; in the later mythology he is always represented as a terrible deity inflicting tortures , called yātanā , on departed spirits ; he is also one of the 8 guardians of the world as regent of the South quarter ; he is the regent of the nakṣatra apa-bharaṇī or bharaṇī , the supposed author of RV. x , 10 ; 14 , of a hymn to viṣṇu and of a law-book ; yamasyā*rkaḥ N. of a sāman A1rshBr. )
|(H2B) yáma [p= 846,2] [p= 846,1] [L=170391]||m.|
N. of the planet Saturn (regarded as the son of vivasvat and chāyā) Hariv. BhP.
|(H2B) yáma [p= 846,2] [L=170392]||m.|
of one of skanda's attendants (mentioned together with ati-yama) MBh.
|(H2B) yáma [L=170393]||m.|
a crow L. (cf. -dūtaka)
|(H2B) yáma [L=170394]||m.|
a bad horse (whose limbs are either too small or too large) L.
|(H2B) yáma [L=170395]||m.|
a pair , brace , couple L.
|(H2B) yáma [L=170397]||n.|
(in gram.) a twin-letter (the consonant interposed and generally understood , but not written in practice , between a nasal immediately preceded by one of the four other consonants in each class) Pra1t. Pat. on Pa1n2. 1-1 , 8
|(H2B) yáma [L=170398]||n.|
pitch of the voice , tone of utterance , key Pra1t.
|(H2B) yáma [L=170399]||n.|
feeding only on breath (i.e. on the mere smell of food or drink) , Pracan2d2.
|prā* ṇá--prā* śanin |
feeding only on breath or air (cf. -prā*śanin) S3rS.
while feeding only on breath or air Ka1tyS3r.
being the breath of life R2itus.
(ī)n. consisting of vigorous air or breath S3Br.
" breath-aperture " , the mouth or a nostril BhP.
|prā* ṇá--randhra ||n.|
suppression of breath BhP.
of a partic. hell ib.
the science of breath or vital airs Col.
|prā* ṇá--vidyā [L=139642]||f.|
strength of breath , Ta1n2d2Br.
|(prā* ṇá--vīrya [L=139645]||n.|
suppression or suspension of breath (as a religious exercise) Ya1jn5.
|prā* ṇá--saṃyama ||m.|
a manner of reciting the Vedic texts , pronouncing as many sounds as possible during one breath VPra1t. Sch.
|prā* ṇá--saṃhitā ||f.|
» s.v.) n. Ved. (defective in the strong cases Pa1n2. 6-1 , 63) a wave , water RV. AV. TS. Ka1t2h.
|udán [p= 183,3] ||(for 2. |
» [p= 183,3]) P. -aniti (and āniti Br2A1rUp. iii , 4 , 1 ; cf. vy- √an ; p. -anát S3Br. ; aor. 3. pl. -āniṣus AV. iii , 13 , 4) to breathe upwards , emit the breath in an upward direction ;
|ud- √ an |
|(for 1. |
to breathe out , breathe AV. S3Br. Br2A1rUp.
(ī)n. or mārutá (fr. marut) relating or belonging to the maruts , proceeding from or consisting of the maruts RV. &c
|(H1) mā́ruta [p= 812,1] [L=163305]||mf|
Mn. Hariv. &c
|[L=163305.05]||relating to or derived from the wind , windy , aerial |
N. of viṣṇu RV.
|(H1B) mā́ruta [L=163305.10]||m.|
of rudra VarBr2S.
|(H1B) mā́ruta [L=163305.15]||m.|
a son of the maruts (applied to vāyu , ūrdhva-nabhas , dyutāna or nitāna) VS. TS. Br. S3rS.
|(H1B) mā́ruta [L=163305.20]||m.|
(= marut) wind , air , the god of wind Mn. MBh. &c
|(H1B) mā́ruta [L=163305.25]||m.|
vital air , one of the 3 humours of the body Sus3r.
|(H1B) mā́ruta [L=163305.30]||m.|
|(H1B) mā́ruta [L=163305.35]||m.|
a chief of the maruts g. parśv-ādi
|(H1B) mā́ruta [L=163305.40]||m.|
N. of a marut Ya1jn5. Sch.
|(H1B) mā́ruta [L=163305.45]||m.|
of agni Gr2ihya1s.
|(H1B) mā́ruta [L=163305.50]||m.|
pl. the maruts (regarded as children of diti) MBh. R.
|(H1B) mā́ruta [L=163305.55]||m.|
N. of a people MBh. (B. ; C. maḍaka)
|(H1B) mā́ruta [L=163305.60]||m.|
(scil. ṛkska or nakṣatra) the constellation svāti L.
|(H1B) mā́ruta [L=163305.75]||n.|
N. of a sāman A1rshBr.
|(H1B) mā́ruta [L=163305.80]||n.|