I advocate a relaxed approach to Sanskrit, in which you play with the words, feel them in your body, and over a period of years get to know them and understand them. You will probably never pronounce the words in the exact Vedic way, because you have not been trained 12 hours a day since the age of 6, and your palate has not been shaped to the sounds, nor did you hear Sanskrit chanted constantly while you were in the womb, and for most of your life. So relax, already, and have fun.
And, then, there is the knotty problem of pronunciation. Americans, after all, do not get the sound right. This is bound to be troubling. From the Vedic age to the present day, in mantras the sound is the thing. An apologist might respond, neither do Indians. The Vedic ideal notwithstanding, there is no single absolutely correct way to pronounce Sanskrit, as regional variations in pronunciation, not to mention the migration of mantras from India to Central Asia and East Asia,, abundantly prove. Harvey Alper, Understanding Mantras, p. 443
If the efficacy of mantras depended on their correct pronunciation, then all mantras in Tibet would have lost their meaning and power, because they are not pronounced according to the rules of Sanskrit, but according to the phonetic laws of the Tibetan language (for instance not; OM MANI PADME HUM, but OM MANI PEME HUM).This means that the power and the effect of a mantra depend on the spiritual attitude, the knowledge and responsiveness of the individual. The sabha or sound of the mantra is not a physical one (though it may be accompanied by such a one) but a spiritual one. It cannot be heard by the years but only by the heart, and it cannot be uttered by the mouth but only by the mind. - Lama Govinda, Foundations of Tibetan Mysticism. London: Rider and Co. 1959.
Paris or Pah-REE!
When French people - that is, born in France - are in the United States, they say “Paris
” - because that is the English-language pronunciation of the city. In the same conversation, if they switch to speaking French to another French speaker, they pronounce, Pah-REE. The same goes for people from Mexico. They say Meh-HEE-KO if they are speaking Spanish, and Mexico
if they are speaking English. Which is correct? It depends on culture. I have never seen a French or Mexican person put the hurt on someone for saying “Paris” or “Mexico.” It just feels rude.
And in New Orleans, people “mis-pronounce” the name of their own city - that is, if you think you are the Pronunciation Police. The way they say it there, to my ears, sounds like NOIRLANS. So who is correct?
"To say a French word in the middle of an English sentence exactly as it would be said by a Frenchman in a French sentence is a feat demanding an acrobatic mouth; the muscles have to be suddenly adjusted to a performance of a different nature, & after it as suddenly recalled to the normal state; it is a feat that should not be attempted; the greater its success as a tour de force, the greater its failure as a step in the conversational progress; for your collocutor, aware that he could not have done it himself, has his attention distracted whether he admires or is humiliated."
-H. W. Fowler, A Dictionary of Modern English Usage:
The Sanskrit Beat-Down
Sometime around 300 B.C., the Brahmins in charge of preserving the Vedas noticed that the pronunciation of the spoken language was shifting. Living languages do that – pronunciation changes over time. The Brahmins realized that if this natural drifting of the way sounds are pronounced was allowed to continue, that the Vedas would become incomprehensible. Their response was panic and fear - so they started beating their children. “You are mispronouncing!” accompanied by a slap to the side of the head.
Why the creepy slapping? It is part of the Sanskrit lineage, in which the ancient texts prescribe that students be slapped on the face or ears every time they mispronounce a word. And that is for the male students of the privileged elite. For lower-caste people, or foreigners, they are to be killed by having molten lead poured in their ears if they even hear the Sanskrit mantras being spoken.
The slapping tradition is still alive in India - one of my informants, born in the 1960’s in India, was given the order to go make the stick with which his teacher would beat him for mispronouncing. I doubt if anyone is being executed nowadays for overhearing the mantras, but the traces of cruelty and superiority remain.
The slapping is good for the preservation of the language - before recording equipment was invented, that is - but it is bad for you learning Sanskrit because it keeps you on a superficial level. When you get that tense feeling, that fear of being slapped, it is hard to ever get over it. And the outer sound, the one you can make with your mouth, is just one small part of the beauty that is Sanskrit - it’s about 25% of Sanskrit. The other 75% are silent, and tension won’t get you there. A social history of India - Page 274
books.google.comContemporary Hinduism: ritual, culture, and practice - Page 244
1879 - 312 pages - Free Google eBook - Read
Now if he listens intentionally to (a recitation of) the Veda, his ears shall be filled with (molten ... Âpastamba II, 10, 27, 14; Manu VIII, 270, 279-283; Ya^ flavalkya II, 215. Haradatta adds that an abusive word or a blow given in ...
Theorizing Scriptures: new critical orientations to a cultural ... - Page 215
|books.google.comRobin Rinehart - 2004 - 448 pages - Google eBook - Preview|
There are many such law books, but the best known, the symbolic book of Brahmin authority, is the Laws of Manu, the book of the ... listens so that he may commit the Veda to memory, his ears should be filled with molten lead and lac. ...
|books.google.comVincent L. Wimbush - 2008 - 310 pages - Preview|
Even there the subalterns were excluded; one text calls for the pouring of molten lac in the ears of a Śūdra who dares to listen to ... The famous law book of Manu (circa second century CE), which is intent on guarding the privileges ...
Because of all this, there is a culture of pretentiousness and domination, in which people go around verbally bitch-slapping others for “mis-pronouncing” Sanskrit words. Hundreds of Sanskrit words have become part of the English language are in daily usage: asana, chakra, pranayama, puja, guru, and so on, and there is a special, emphatic way of saying these words, if you are speaking Sanskrit. So people who know a little Sanskrit, and have the inflections, go around rudely correcting the pronunciation in an endless “I say PO-TAH-TO you say potato” competition.
Sanskrit As a Prestige Language
Sanskrit is a prestige language
in the United States and Great Britain, in yoga circles, just as English is a prestige language in India. Asserting your supremacy over someone by correcting their pronunciation gives the person a feeling of prestige. Good Wikipedia article on Prestige Language
When people are trying to impress, or avoid being slapped (verbally or physically) for mispronunciation, they tend to hyper-correct. Hypercorrection
is when people try to seem formal or educated. Another term linguists use for pretentious speech is hyperurbanism “
a pronunciation or grammatical form or usage produced by a speaker of one dialect according to an analogical rule formed by comparison of the speaker's own usage with that of another, more prestigious, dialect and often applied in an inappropriate context, especially in an effort to avoid sounding countrified, rural, or provincial, as in the pronunciation of the word two (to̅o̅) as (tyo̅o̅).”
If you get caught up in the Sanskrit beat-down mentality, like correcting your students who say, “asana” with American pronunciation, and correct them, trying to get them to lengthen the a sound, keep in mind that you may just sound creepy. In the United States, the President of the country goes out of his way to NOT sound like an elite.
For example, a recent speech by President Obama
The last few days have seen protests spreadin' throughout the Arab world, and leaders there are becomin' increasingly nervous about the possibility of large-scale unrest landin' on their doorsteps. Containin' the uprisings is provin' to be an unexpected challenge for dictators who have become accustomed to holdin' on to power for decades."
Americans hate it when you try to slap them down with your elite shaming techniques. If you genuinely are from England and happen to sound like the Queen, then Okay, but don’t beat us upside the head about it, Okay?
Basic Tips for Pronouncing Sanskrit
Sanskrit has sounds that we don’t have in English, ways of moving the tongue in a kind of tongue-asana. People who have studied Sanskrit since childhood sound marvelous when they make the sounds unique to Sanskrit. People who starting studying Sanskrit as adults tend to sound artificial, forced. Even Sanskrit scholars who have studied the language for 30 or 40 years tend to tense up, because they are afraid that they will mispronounce a word and be humiliated. David White, author of Sinister Yogis
, says that unless you began speaking Sanskrit or an Indic language as a child, your palate may not be shaped properly to be able to do exact pronunciation.
You can approximate the sounds, and feel your way into them. Learn to be relaxed with the Sanskrit terms, and give your body a chance to explore what it likes in the sounds and resonances. Mark Singleton
"The Vijnana Bhairava Tantra is designed to be chanted, so it helps to know where the emphasis falls on a word. Here are a few tips on pronunciation and chanting. It's not complete, but it will get you started.
1. All Es and all Os are long--always
. So when the goddess says "nivrtto me", /ni is short, /vrt/t is short. But /o/ is long and /me /is long (about twice as long). So the words sound like this: "nivrtt-oah.... may...", with the dots representing a long note. Tap the syllables "ni vrt" on a hard surface with your nail. Then tap "o me" more slowly with the pad of your finger. That's kind of how it should sound when you chant it. Or two quavers followed by two crotchets in musical terms.
2. The other vowels (a, i, u) are either short or long
. When one of these letters has a line over it (ā, ī, ū), it's long. Otherwise it's always short. A couple of examples: sādhu is pronounced "saadhu" (long ahh sound, short u). Rūpam is pronounced "roopam" (long u, short a). Prakīrtitā is pronounced "pra-keer-ti-taa" (short a, long i, short i, long a).
3. Within a single line, smoosh vowels at the end of words together with vowels at the beginning of the next word. Make the resulting sound long. This will help you get the rhythm right. The Vijnana Bhairava is composed in a meter called Anushtubh
, which has 8 syllables per half line, 32 syllables in a full verse. Exactly 8 syllables--every time! If you're off your beat, check that you're smooshing where you can smoosh. Some examples:
The Goddess says: "kim vā nava ātma bhedena". 9 syllables if you sing "nava ātma". But if you smoosh nava+atma together and pronounce "navaatma" (long a), you have 8 syllables......."
A rough guide to Pronouncing Sanskrit
(from Visible Mantra
About 80% of pronouncing Sanskrit can be covered by a few basic rules
- Pronounce all the letters. So Bud-d-ha, c-handa.
- C is always soft as in church.
- Curl your tongue back when there is a dot under the letter, except for...
- ṃ, ḥ and ṛ which you can treat as though English with no dots.
- A dash over a vowel makes it longer, e.g. the a sound in 'but', vs the ā sound in father.
- If an "s" has diacritics - ie ś or ṣ pronounce it 'sh'.
- If an "n" has diacritics - ie ṅ, ñ and ṇ pronounce it 'n'.
- Sangha rhymes with sung, not sang. (the most common vowel mispronuciation).
The Traditions Are Inconsistent on Pronunciation
“It is worth noting that those traditions which use mantra are inconsistent on the subject of pronunciation. The old traditions, and the texts themselves, speak of the absolute necessity of correctly pronouncing the syllables for the mantras to have the desired effect. The Chinese are sensitive to this issue and retain the Siddhaṃ characters in the Taisho edition of the Tripiṭaka to ensure that the original pronunciation is not lost in transliterating mantras into Chinese characters.
However in practice those not born to Indic languages may never really get the hang of the sounds and tend in incorporate 'fudges' into their pronunciation. So the Tibetans apparently struggle with svāhā and pronounce it soha; while the Japanese who have quite a restricted pallet of sounds pronounce it sowa. In fact around India there is variation in pronunciation of Sanskrit, so that a Bengali will pronounce namaskar as though it is written nomoskar (ie the vowel becomes rounded towards an /o/ sound).
There is an old story about someone who mistakenly was pronouncing their mantra incorrectly, but was making great progress with it. When a passing lama corrected their diction, the progress ceased! In one version the someone runs across the top of the lake to catch up with the lama because he has forgotten how the mantra is supposed to sound. When Donald Lopez quotes this story in Prisoners of Shangrila (p.114) he notes that it is a short story by Tolstoy called The Three Hermits. Tolstoy apparently picked this story up from a wandering story teller in 1879, and it's origins are obscure. Was the source in Tibetan, or has it been adapted by Tibetan Buddhists to explain changes in pronunciation? The story is reproduced in "The Autobiography of a Yogi" (p.309) by Paramhansa Yogananda, first published 1946. I suspect that this is the immediate source of the story in Buddhist circles.” thanks, Visible Mantra
The Clay Library guide to pronouncing Sanskrit
See the whole guide here
Pronunciation Changes As Sanskrit Migrated to China and Japan
‘Nianfo (Chinese: 念佛, pinyin: niànfó; Japanese: 念仏 nembutsu; Korean: 염불 yeombul; Vietnamese: niệm Phật), is a term commonly seen in the Pure Land school of Mahāyāna Buddhism. It derives from the Sanskrit term “buddhānusmṛti”, which means “mindfulness of the Buddha.” In the context of Pure Land practice, it generally refers to the repetition of the name of Amitābha Buddha.
Although the Sanskrit phrase used in India is not mentioned originally in the bodies of the two main Pure Land sutras, it appears in the opening of the extant Sanskrit Infinite Life Sutra as the following:
The apostrophe and omission of the first “A” in “Amitābha” comes from normal Sanskrit sandhi transformation, and implies that the first “A” is implied and spoken more quickly. A more accessible rendering might be:
The phrase literally means “Homage to Infinite Light”. The Sanskrit pronunciation, according to its mapping to the International Phonetic Alphabet, is the following:
Nianfo in Various forms
As the practice of nianfo spread from India to various other regions, the original pronunciation changed to fit various native languages.
Language As written Phonetic
Sanskrit नमोऽमिताभाय Namo Amitābhāya
Japanese Kanji: 南無阿弥陀仏
Hiragana: なむ あみだ ぶつ Namu Amida Butsu
thanks, LAST FM
.The Saturday review of politics, literature, science and art: Volume 11 - Page 247
Recalling Chögyam Trungpa - Page 320
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The result has been that even the Chinese were after a time unable to read — i. c, to pronounce — these random ... This, no doubt, explains, to a great extent, the distorted appearance of many Sanskrit words when written in Chinese. ...
|books.google.comFabrice Midal - 2005 - 481 pages - Google eBook - Preview|
He made great effort, though it seemed natural, to pronounce the many Sanskrit technical terms he utilized in his talks in the way these words would be said in India. However, when he chanted Sanskrit mantras encountered in Tibetan ...
Siksa - the science which teaches proper articulation and pronunciation of Vedic textsśikṣā
|(H2B) śikṣā [p= 1070,1] [L=216519]||f.|
desire of being able to effect anything , wish to accomplish Kir. xv , 37
|(H2) śikṣā [L=216527]||f.|
loc. or comp. ; śikṣayā or °kṣābhis , " skilfully , artistically , correctly ") MBh. Ka1v. &c
|[L=216528]||learning study knowledge , art , skill in (|
adhicitta-śikṣā , training in the higher thought ; adhiśīla-ś° , training in the higher morality ; adhiprajñā-ś° , training in the higher learning Dharmas. 140) , instruction , lesson , precept S3a1n3khBr. TUp. &c
|[L=216529]||teaching , training (held by Buddhists to be of three kinds , viz. |
|[L=216530]||chastisement , punishment |
vedā*ṅgas q.v.) Pra1t. Mun2d2Up. &c
|[L=216531]||the science which teaches proper articulation and pronunciation of Vedic texts (one of the six |
|[L=216532]||modesty , humility , diffidence |
|[L=216533]||(?) helping , bestowing , imparting (|
Bignonia Indica L.
|[L=216534]||the plant |
Sanskrit Words for Mispronouncingvyāsa
severing , separation , division Sarvad.
|(H2) vy-āsa [p= 1035,2] [L=209338]||m.|
|[L=209339]||a kind of drawl (as a fault in pronunciation) , |
instr. ; abl. and -tas ind. in detail , at length , fully) MBh. Sus3r. BhP.
|[L=209340]||extension , diffusion , prolixity , detailed account (|
|[L=209341]||width , breadth , the diameter of a circle |
N. of the pada-pāṭha or " disjoined text " Apra1t. ??
|[L=209342]||" distributing , disjoining " , |
N. of a celebrated mythical sage and author (often called veda-vyāsa and regarded as the original compiler and arranger of the vedas , vedā*nta-sūtras &c ; he was the son of the sage parāśara and satyavatī , and half-brother of vicitra-vīrya and bhīṣma ; he was also called vādarāyaṇa or bādarāyaṇa , and kṛṣṇa from his dark complexion , and dvaipāyana because he was brought forth by satyavatī on a dvīpa or island in the Jumna ; when grown up he retired to the wilderness to lead the life of a hermit , but at his mother's request returned to become the husband of vicitra-vīrya's two childless widows , by whom he was the father of the blind dhṛta-rāṣṭra and of pāṇḍu ; he was also the father of vidura [q.v.] by a slave girl , and of śuka , the supposed narrator of the bhāgavata-purāṇa , he was also the supposed compiler of the mahā-bhārata , the purāṇas , and other portions of Hindu sacred literature ; but the name vyāsa seems to have been given to any great typical compiler or author) MBh. Hariv. Pur. cf. IW. 371 n. 2 ; 373 &c
|[L=209343]||" arranger , compiler " , |
purāṇas &c in public (= pāṭhaka-brāhmaṇa) MW.
|[L=209344]||a Brahman who recites or expounds the |
a bow weighing 100 palas L.
|(H2B) vy-āsa [L=209345]||n.|
» [p= 1035,2].
|(H1) vy-āsa [p= 1039,2] [L=210095]||&c |
the dropping or omission of a letter in pronunciation MW.
|(H3) várṇa--pāta [p= 924,3] [L=187361]||m.|
trembling , shaking , tremulous , agitated , unsteady R2itus.
|(H3) vi-° kampita [p= 953,3] [L=193846]||mfn.|
a kind of sinking of the tone of the voice APra1t.
|(H3B) vi-° kampita [L=193847]||n.|
a partic. faulty pronunciation of the vowels Pat.
|(H3B) vi-° kampita [L=193848]||n.|
" indistinctness " , incorrect pronunciation of the dentals ib.
|(H2) vi-kleśa [L=194328]||m.|
( Padap. pra-yóga) (for 2. » under. pra- √yuj) coming to a meal RV. x , 7 , 5 ( Sa1y. = pra-yoktavya)
|(H2) prayo-gá 1 [p= 688,1] [L=136219]||mfn.|
N. of a ṛṣi TS.
|(H2B) prayo-gá 1 [L=136219.1]||m.|
(with bhārgava) author of RV. viii , 91 Anukr.
|(H2B) prayo-gá 1 [L=136219.2]||m.|
(for 1. » under 2. práyas , col.1) joining together , connection Var.
|(H2) prayoga 2 [p= 688,2] [L=136310]||m.|
Vpra1t. Pa1n2. (loc. often = in the case of Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 1-4 , 25 ; 26 &c )
|[L=136311]||position , addition (of a word) |
MBh. R. &c
|[L=136312]||hurling , casting (of missiles) |
|[L=136313]||offering , presenting |
|[L=136314]||undertaking , beginning , commencement |
|[L=136315]||a design , contrivance , device , plan |
esp. of drugs or magic ; cf. IW. 402 , 1) , use Gr2S3rS. MBh. &c (ena , āt and °ga-tas ifc. = by means of)
|[L=136316]||application , employment (|
opp. to , " theory ") Ma1lav.
|[L=136317]||practice , experiment (|
ais , by use of means) MBh. Sus3r.
|[L=136318]||a means (only |
|[L=136319]||(in gram.) an applicable or usual form |
Mr2icch. Ka1lid. (°ga-to- √dṛś , to see actually represented » on the stage Ratna7v. )
|[L=136320]||exhibition (of a dance) , representation (of a drama) |
|[L=136321]||a piece to be represented |
S3rS. RPra1t. Pa1n2. Sch.
|[L=136322]||utterance , pronunciation , recitation , delivery |
|[p= 688,3] [L=136323]||a formula to be recited , sacred text |
|[L=136324]||lending at interest or on usury , investment |
|[L=136325]||principal , loan bearing interest |
|[L=136326]||an example |
|[L=136327]||cause , motive , affair , object |
|[L=136328]||consequence , result |
|[L=136329]||ceremonial form , course of proceeding |
cf. pra-yāga) L.
|[L=136330]||a horse (|
held , borne , maintained , supported kept , possessed
|(H2) dhṛtá [L=101818]||mfn.|
|[L=101819]||used , practised , observed |
scil. tulayā) MBh.
|[L=101820]||measured , weighed (with or |
&c ) Mn. MBh. Ka1v.
|[L=101821]||worn (as clothes , shoes , beard , |
kare , by the hand) Hit.
|[L=101822]||kept back , detained (|
|[L=101823]||drawn tight (reins) |
loc. or dat.) MBh. R.
|[L=101824]||turned towards or fixed upon , ready or prepared for , resolved on (|
|[L=101825]||continuing , existing , being |
Pra1t. (am ind. solemnly , slowly Pan5c. iii , 72÷73)
|[L=101826]||prolonged (in pronunciation) |
antare) deposited as surety , pledged ib. iv , 31÷32
|[L=101828]||quoted , cited by (|
N. of a son of the 13th manu Hariv. (v.l. bhṛtha)
|(H2B) dhṛtá [L=101829]||m.|
of a descendant of druhyu and son of dharma Pur. (cf. dhārteya)
|(H2B) dhṛtá [L=101830]||m.|
a partic. manner of fighting Hariv.
|(H2B) dhṛtá [L=101831]||n.|
pronunciation which is distinct but slow (one of the 7 vācaḥ sthānāni , or degrees of pronunciation) TPra1t.
|(H3) ni-° mada [p= 550,3] [L=108924]||m.|
manner of pronunciation TPra1t.
|(H3) káraṇa--vinyaya [p= 254,1] [L=44257]||m.|
difference of articulation or organ of pronunciation.
|(H3) káraṇa--sthāna-bheda [L=44261]||m.|
too marked contact (of the tongue and palate) in pronunciation.
|(H3) áti--sparśa [p= 13,1] [L=2854]||m.|
non-pronunciation , skipping words (in reciting hymns). » uc- √car.
|(H1) an-uccāra [p= 32,2] [L=6278]||m.|
non-pronunciation , skipping words (in reciting hymns). » uc- √car.
|(H1) an-uccāraṇa [L=6278.1]||n.|
nasal , uttered through the nose (as one of the five nasal consonants , or a vowel , or the three semivowels y , v , l , under certain circumstances ; in the case of vowels and semivowels , the mark $ is used to denote this nasalization)
|(H1) anu-nāsika [p= 34,1] [L=6522]||mfn.|
|[L=6523]||the nasal mark $|
a nasal twang
|(H1B) anu-nāsika [L=6524]||n.|
speaking through the nose (a fault in pronunciation).
|(H1B) anu-nāsika [L=6525]||n.|
(ambū used onomatopoetically to denote by trying to utter mb the effect caused by shutting the lips on pronouncing a vowel) , pronounced indistinctly (so that the words remain too much in the mouth)
|(H1) ambū-krita [p= 84,1] [L=14559]||mfn.|
ambu , water]) sputtered , accompanied with saliva Pat. La1t2y. (an- ,neg.)
|[L=14560]||([in later writers derived fr. |
a peculiar indistinct pronunciation of the vowels RPra1t. Pat.
|(H1B) ambū-krita [L=14561]||n.|
roaring (of beasts) accompanied with emission of saliva Uttarar. Ma1lati1m.
|(H1B) ambū-krita [L=14562]||n.|
not according to measure or quantity (a defect in the pronunciation of vowels) RPra1t.
|(H3) a-yathā-mātram [p= 84,3] [L=14734]||ind.|
forming a half. Bhpr.
|(H2) ardhaka [p= 92,3] [L=16322]||mfn.|
the half. Hcat.
|(H2B) ardhaka [L=16323]||n.|
N. of a wrong pronunciation of the vowels Pat.
|(H2B) ardhaka [L=16324]||n.|
|(H2B) ardhaka [L=16325]||m.|
trembling , tremor , trembling motion , shaking MBh. Sus3r. &c
|(H2) kampa [p= 252,3] [L=43914]||m.|
cf. bhūmi-kampa , mahī-k° , &c )
svarita accent which may take place if the svarita syllable is followed by an udātta syllable) Nir. &c
|[L=43916]||tremulous or thrilling pronunciation (a modification of the |
|[L=43917]||a kind of time (in mus.)|
of a man.
(ā)n. (etym. doubtful) indistinct , dumb Br2A1rUp. ChUp.
|(H1) kala [p= 260,1] [L=45601]||mf|
ifc. , bāṣpa , or aśru preceding) indistinct or inarticulate (on account of tears) MBh. R. &c
|[p= 260,2] [L=45602]||(|
R. BhP. Vikr. &c
|[L=45603]||low , soft (as a tone) , emitting a soft tone , melodious (as a voice or throat) |
|[L=45604]||a kind of faulty pronunciation of vowels |
|[L=45605]||weak , crude , undigested |
(scil. svara) a low or soft and inarticulate tone (as humming , buzzing &c ) L.
|(H1B) kala [L=45606]||m.|
Shorea robusta L.
|(H1B) kala [L=45607]||m.|
(in poetry) time equal to four mātras or instants W.
|(H1B) kala [L=45608]||m.|
a class of manes MBh.
|(H1B) kala [L=45609]||m. pl.|
semen virile L.
|(H1B) kala [L=45610]||n.|
|(H1B) kala [L=45611]||n.|
N. of a poet, Subh.
|(H2) kala [p= 1324,1] [L=326990]||m.|
(fr. -śākham) a treatise on the peculiar euphonic combination and pronunciation of letters which prevails in different śākhās of the vedas (there are 4 prātiśākhya one for the śākala-śākhā of the RV. ; two for particular śākhās of the black and white yajur-vedas , and one for a śākhā of the AV. ; cf. IW. 149 , 150)
|(H3) prāti--śākhya [p= 706,3] [L=139907]||n.|
a partic. stammering pronunciation of the letter r RPra1t.
|(H3) barbara--tā [p= 722,1] [L=142944]||f.|
°híh-) ind. said of a partic. pronunciation S3Br.
|(H3) bahiḥ--śri [p= 726,3] [L=144094]||(|
eaten or drunk , chewed , masticated , devoured , enjoyed , partaken of S3Br. &c
|(H3) bha° kṣitá [p= 742,3] [L=147558]||mfn.|
partic. bad pronunciation of words) L.
|[L=147559]||eaten (said of a |
the being eaten by (instr.) R.
|(H3B) bha° kṣitá [L=147560]||n.|
causing ease of pronunciation Pa1n2. 3-3 , 57 Sch.
|(H3) mukha--sukha [p= 820,1] [L=164989]||n.|
(ā́)n. (cf. lomaśa) having thick hair or wool or bristles , hairy , shaggy RV. &c
|(H2) romaśá [p= 890,1] [L=179974]||mf|
|[L=179975]||applied to a faulty pronunciation of vowels |
a sheep , ram L.
|(H2B) romaśá [L=179976]||m.|
a hog , boar L.
|(H2B) romaśá [L=179977]||m.|
N. of two plants (= kambhī and piṇḍā*lu) L.
|(H2B) romaśá [L=179978]||m.|
= dullala (?) L.
|(H2B) romaśá [L=179979]||m.|
N. of a ṛṣi BhP.
|(H2B) romaśá [L=179980]||m.|
of an astronomer (cf. -siddhā*nta)
|(H2B) romaśá [L=179981]||m.|
another plant (= dagdhā) L.
|(H2B) romaśá [L=179983]||m.|
N. of the reputed authoress of RV. i , 126 , 7 RAnukr.
|(H2B) romaśá [L=179984]||m.|
the pudenda RV. x , 86 , 16.
|(H2B) romaśá [L=179986]||n.|
hairiness , woolliness MW.
|(H2) lomaśya [p= 908,2] [L=183726]||n.|
" roughness " , N. of a partic. pronunciation of the sibilants RPra1t.
|(H2B) lomaśya [L=183727]||n.|
the distinct pronunciation (of every sound) Pin3g. Sch.
|(H4) vi-° bhajya---pāṭha [p= 977,2] [L=198212.1]||m.|
(ā)n. passionless , without feeling , dispassionate , indifferent (sarvatas , " to everything ") R. BhP.
|(H3) ví--rāga 1 [p= 952,1] [L=193443]||mf|
(for 1. » [p= 952,1]) change or loss of colour Naish.
|(H2) vi-rāga 2 [p= 982,1] [L=199109]||m.|
Pa1n2. 6-4 , 91
|[L=199110]||excitement , irritation |
loc. abl. , or comp.) Ka1v. Ra1jat. BhP.
|[L=199111]||aversion , dislike or indifference to (|
|[L=199112]||indifference to external things or worldly objects |
|[p= 982,2] [L=199113]||the faulty suppression of a sound in pronunciation , |
partic. high number Buddh.
( Pa1n2. 7-2 , 14) swelled , swollen (esp. " morbidly ") , increased , grown Sus3r.
|(H2) śūna [p= 1085,1] [L=220060]||mfn.|
N. of a man MBh.
|(H2B) śūna [L=220061]||m.|
emptiness (orig. " swollen state " , " hollowness " cf. śūnya below) , lack , want , absence RV.
|(H2B) śū́na [L=220062]||n.|
a partic. incorrect pronunciation (esp. of vowels) RPra1t.
|(H2B) śūna [L=220063]||m.|
|(H1) śūna [p= 1086,1] [L=220258]||»|
» [p= 1085,1].
|(H3) śūna [p= 1106,2] [L=224482]||&c |
hissing , snorting , panting R. Katha1s. BhP.
|(H2) śvāsa [p= 1106,1] [L=224401]||m.|
= prā*ṇa , asu) MBh. Ka1v. &c
|[L=224402]||respiration , breath (also as a measure of time |
RPra1t. , Introd.
|[L=224403]||breathing or aspiration (in the pronunciation of consonants) |
|[L=224405]||sighing , a sigh |
kṣudra , tamaka , chinna , mahat , and ūrdhva) Sus3r.
|[L=224406]||affection of the breath , hard breathing , asthma (of which there are five kinds , viz. |
raṇa &c » [p= 1116,1].
|(H1) saṃ-vāra [p= 1115,1] [L=226157]||°|
(ifc. f(ā).) covering , concealing , closing up MW.
|(H2) saṃ-vāra [p= 1116,1] [L=226338]||m.|
opp. to the vi-vāra q.v. , and regarded as one of the bāhya-prayatnas) Pa1n2. 1-1 , 9 Sch.
|[L=226339]||compression or contraction of the throat or of the vocal chords (in pronunciation) , obtuse articulation (|
Mr2icch. vii , (v.l.) 6÷7
|[L=226340]||an obstacle , impediment |
compression (of the lips) MBh.
|(H2) saṃ-daṃśá [p= 1143,1] [L=231379]||m.|
|[L=231380]||too great compression of the teeth in the pronunciation of vowels |
|[L=231381]||junction , connection |
AV. Br. Pur. Sus3r.
|[L=231382]||a pair of tongs or pincers or nippers |
of those parts of the body which are used for grasping or seizing (as the thumb and forefinger together , the opposite eye-teeth , the nippers of a crab &c ) Ya1jn5. VarBr2S. Sus3r. Pan5cat. Katha1s.
partic. naraka or hell (where the flesh of the wicked is tortured with pincers) Pur.
|[L=231385]||a chapter or section of a book |
partic. ekā*ha Vait.
&c (fixed according to the compass) L.
|[L=231387]||the site of a village |
|(H2) a-romaśa [p= 89,1] [L=15566]||mfn.|
absence of a partic. faulty pronunciation of the sibilants, Ma1n2d2S3. 1.
|(H2) a-romaśa [p= 1316,1] [L=313830]||n.|
The Century: Volume 11 - Page 363
n. a partic. fault in pronunciation, S3iksh.
|(H2) ud-ghriṣṭa [p= 1322,1] [L=323060]||(also) |
Notes on the Pronunciation Wars
Sanskrit & Prakrit, sociolinguistic issues - Page 210
|books.google.com1876 - Free Google eBook - Read|
It is bad enough to have a Sanskrit text forced on one's attention, although its solid letters are of considerable beauty, and augurwell for the ... This consists in the inability or dislike to pronounce many combinations of consonants. ...
Reservation for Other Backward Classes in Indian Central ... - Page 302
|books.google.comMadhav Deshpande - 1993 - 230 pages - Preview|
Abhyankar (1974: 35) notes that the TaittirTya reciters occasionally pronounce n in the place of n without any reason: ... JA Stewart, Manual of Colloquial Burmese, London, 1955, p. 6. 213. Banikanta Kakati, Assamese, Its Formation and ...
Ambedkar on law, constitution, and social justice
Civil Religion: A Dialogue in the History of Political Philosophy - Page 385
|books.google.comMohammad Shabbir - 2005 - 403 pages - Snippet view|
The ancient legal text, Manu Smriti (the laws of the mythic codifier, Manu) prescribed draconic punishment for ... the untouchable was forbidden to hear sacred text (Manu prescribed pouring molten lead in the ears of offenders) even ...
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Arundhati Roy's The god of small things: Volume 1 - Page 24
|books.google.comRonald Beiner - 2010 - 448 pages - Preview|
The Laws of Manu, followed by orthodox Hindus, prescribed the method of execution. ... molten lead poured into his ears.” See Gita Mehta, Snakes and Ladders: Glimpses of Modern India (New York: Anchor Books, 1997), p. 120. ...
The Sacred Laws of the Aryas: as taught in the school of ... - Page 236
|books.google.comAlex Tickell - 2007 - 183 pages - Google eBook - Preview|
As a response to the increasing complexity and mobility of Hindu society, the law code of Manu (also known as the ... that if an untouchable hears the recital of a shloka or sacred verse he must have molten lead poured in to his ears. ...
The sacred laws of the Âryas: as taught in the schools of ... - Page 239
|books.google.com1879 - 312 pages - Free Google eBook - Read|
Now if he listens intentionally to (a recitation of) the Veda, his ears shall be filled with (molten ... Âpastamba II, 10, 27, 14; Manu VIII, 270, 279-283; Ya^ flavalkya II, 215. Haradatta adds that an abusive word or a blow given in ...
The First Great Political Realist: Kautilya and His Arthashastra - Page 23
|books.google.comĀpastamba, Gautama Buddha, Vasishtha Muni Ojhā - 1898 - Free Google eBook - Read|
Now if he listens intentionally to (a recitation of) the Veda, his ears shall be filled with (molten) tin or lac. 5. ... Manu VIII, 267; Ya^lavalkyalll, 204-207. Manu VIII, 136 states one Karshapaaa or copper Pawa contains 80 Rakiikas ..
Ancient future: the teachings and prophetic wisdom of the seven ... - Page 133
|books.google.comRoger Boesche - 2003 - 127 pages - Google eBook - Preview|
(Dharmasutras, 71) Later legal texts prescribed pouring molten lead into the ears of a Shudra caught listening to ... (Thapar 1966, 56; Sharma 1990, 145; Laws of Manu, 241) Untouchables lived outside the boundaries of town or village. ...
Imagining India: The Idea of a Renewed Nation
|books.google.comWayne B. Chandler - 2000 - 230 pages - Preview|
If a sudra hears the vedas [the holy and religious texts of the Aryans], his ears shall be filled with molten lead. ... these are but a few of the Laws of Manu, they convey the extreme conditions that India's Blacks were made to endure . ...
Beverley Collins, Inger M. Mees - 1999 - 571 pages - Preview
You mispronounce on purpose, and notice whether your native is just as well satisfied with your intentional ... In so doing, Jones reveals incidentally considerable knowledge of the work of the ancient Sanskrit phoneticians — possibly ...