Shabda or sabda - Sound, word, language, OM, oral tradition


adyāpi na nivṛtto me saṃśayaḥ parameśvara |
kiṃ rūpaṃ tattvato deva
śabdarāśikalāmayam || 2 ||

śabda
śábda [p= 1052,3] [p= 1052,2] [L=212652]
(in Dhya1nabUp. also n. ifc. f(ā). perhaps connected with √3. śap cf. also 2. śap) sound , noise , voice , tone , note (śabdak , to utter a sound , raise the voice , cry aloud ; sound is supposed to be sevenfold [ MBh. xii , 6858] or eight. fold [ Dharmas. 35] or tenfold [ MBh. xiv , 1418] ; in the mīmā it is taught to be eternal)

śabdena , by word , explicitly , expressly) ib. Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 2-3 , 19

BhP.

opp. to apa-śabda) Pat.

Amr2itUp.

Pa1n2. Sch.

Mn. MBh. &c (tacchabdāt , " because it is so-called " Ka1tyS3r. )

TPra1t.

pramāas q.v. ) Nya1yas. Sarvad.
(H2) m.
[L=212653]a word (
[L=212654]speech , language
[L=212655]the right word , correct expression (
[L=212656]the sacred syllable Om ,
[L=212657](in gram.) a declinable word or a word-termination , affix
[L=212658]a name , appellation , title
[L=212659]a technical term
[L=212660]verbal communication or testimony , oral tradition , verbal authority or evidence (as one of the

śabdarāśi
śábda--rāśi [p= 1053,1] [L=212769]
(in phil.) a collection of sounds or words or in fallible verbal teachings (said of the veda)

(H3) m.
[L=212770]" collection of sounds or letters " , the alphabet
 
Hermeneutics and language in Pūrva Mīmāmsā: a study in Śābara Bhāsya - Page 39
unknown
- 1990 - 164 pages - Preview
Language is the primordial mystery on which Sabara throws some light through his careful explanation of sabda. ... Sabda The incapability of translating sabda into another language by a single term is the main difficulty of any ...
books.google.com
Othmar Gächter

Siva Sutras: The Yoga of Supreme Identity - Page liii
unknown
- 1988 - 278 pages - Preview
It goes by this name in some of the tantras and in the yoga tradition of Gorakhanatha. Among the mediaeval saints of north India, such as Kabir and others, it is called surati-sabda yoga. In Radhasvami sect also, it is known as ...
books.google.com
Jaideva Singh


A study in the dialectics of Sphoṭa - Page 83
unknown
- 1980 - 105 pages - Preview
abhyudaya, ultimately reaching the goal of life through sabda-pur va-yoga . Let us now turn to 4. It states that Pasyanti, the highest to be achieved in life, is attained through sabda-purva-yoga coming in the wake of knowledge of ...
books.google.com
Gaurinath Bhattacharyya Shastri

Yoga and psychology: language, memory, and mysticism - Page 34
unknown
- 2002 - 115 pages - Google eBook - Preview
In line with sphosa theoty, Vacaspati notes that these predicate relations among sabda, attha, andjnana teptesent ... To such high-ettot-level perception Yoga applies the technical tetm savitatka, which means indistinct concenttation ...
books.google.com
Harold G. Coward

The Yoga of delight, wonder, and astonishment: a translation of ... - Page 37
unknown
- 1991 - 173 pages - Google eBook - Preview
as nadanusandhana in some of the older upanifods and Natha tradition, and surati sabda yoga in Kabira and other mediaeval saints. 3. Patrakarne means that this inner spontaneous sound is not audible to every ear but only to ...
books.google.com
Jaideva Singh






śabdarāśimaheśvara
śábda--rāśi---mahe* śvara [L=212771]
" great lord of the alphabet " , N. of śiva (as the revealer of grammar to ini) RTL. 84 , 1 Cat.
(H4) m.




Other Sanskrit Words for Sound and Shabda (or sabda)






 śabdakarmaka
śábda--karmaka [L=212661]
(a root) meaning , " to sound " Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 1-4 , 52. -1.
(H3) mfn.
 śabdakarman
śábda--karman [L=212662]
" sound-making " , a sound , noise A1past.
śábda--karman 2 [L=212663]
= -karmaka Pa1n2. 1-4 , 52.
(H3) n.
(H3) mfn.
 śabdakāra
śábda--kāra [L=212668]
Pa1n2. ) mfn. making a noise or sound , sounding , sonorous.
(H3) (
 śabdakārin
śábda--kārin [L=212669]
Nir. ) mfn. making a noise or sound , sounding , sonorous.
(H3) (
 śabdagua
śábda--gua [L=212682]
the quality of sounds MW.

opp. to artha-g° q.v. ; there are 10 guā*lakāras , viz. ojas , prasāda , ślea , samatā , samādhi , mādhurya , saukumārya , udāratā , artha-vyakti , and kānti , qq. vv.) Va1m. iii , 1 , 4.
(H3) m.
[L=212683]the excellence of the sound or form (of a poem , as
 śabdagraha
śábda--graha [L=212685]
" receiver of sounds " , the ear L.

ib.

of a fabulous arrow ib.
(H3) m.
[L=212686]receiving or catching sound
[L=212687]N.
 śabdacitra
śábda--citra [L=212694]
sound-variation , alliteration &c Kpr. Sa1h.
śábda--citra [L=212695]
having various or fanciful sounds MW.
(H3) n.
(H3B) mfn.
 śabdanityatā
śábda--nityatā [L=212711]
the eternity of sound (also -tva MW. )
(H3) f.
 śabdapāta
śábda--pāta [L=212722]
range or reach of sound
(H3) m.
 śabdabāāgravedhin
śábda--bāā* gra-vedhin [L=212733]
hitting (an unseen object) with an arrow's point by (aiming at) the mere sound R. (cf. śabda-vedhin).
(H3) mfn.
 śabdabrahman
śábda--brahman [p= 1053,1] [L=212737]
" word-brahman " , the veda considered as a revealed sound or word and identified with the Supreme MaitrUp. Pur.
(H3) n.
 śabdamaya
śábda--maya [L=212753]
(ī)n. consisting of sound or of sounds VPra1t. Hcar.

Hariv.

ifc.) consisting or formed of a partic. word Ragh. xviii , 5.
(H3) mf
[L=212754]sounding uttering , sounds
[L=212755](
 śabdamātra
śábda--mātra [L=212756]
sound only , a mere sound Pan5cat.
(H3) n.
 śabdarahita
śábda--rahita [L=212768]
" destitute of sound " , noiseless VarBr2S.
(H3) mfn.
 śabdarūpa
śábda--rūpa [L=212772]
the nature or quality of a sound , a partic. sound Pan5cat.

Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 2-3 , 48

of a gram. wk.
śábda--rūpa [L=212775]
(ā)n. appearing in the form of a sound Pan5car.
(H3) n.
[L=212773]the gram. form of a word
[L=212774]N.
(H3B) mf
 śabdavat
śábda--vat [L=212782]
uttering sounds , sounding , noisy Nir. Hariv.

VarBr2S.

BhP.
śábda--vat [L=212785]
noisily MBh. Ma1rkP.
(H3) mfn.
[L=212783]crackling (as flame)
[L=212784]endowed with sound (as wind)
(H4) ind.
 śabdaviśea
śábda--viśea [L=212793]
difference or variety of sound

the varieties of sound (these the khya arranges accord. to the accents , udātta , an-udātta , svarita , and the notes of the gamut , a-ja , ṛṣabha , gāndhāra , madhyama , pañcama , daivata , niāda &c , qq. vv.) MW.
(H3) m.
[L=212794]pl.
 śabdavedha
śábda--vedha [L=212797]
= vedhin (applied to an arrow) Pan5cad.
śábda--vedha [L=212798]
the act of shooting at or hitting an invisible object the sound of which is only heard MBh. R. DivyA7v.
(H3) mfn.
(H3B) m.
 śabdavedhin
śábda--vedhin [L=212799]
" sound-piercing " , hitting an unseen (but heard) object Nir. R. (°dhi-tva n. MBh. R. )

of arjuna L.

daśa-ratha MW.
(H3) mfn.
[L=212800]N.
[L=212801]of king
 śabdasambhava
śábda--sambhava [p= 1053,2] [L=212824]
the source or origin of sound (applied to air or the wind) Hariv.
(H3) m.
 śabdasādhana
śábda--sādhana [L=212826]
hitting a mere sound (i.e. hitting an object perceived only by the ear ; cf. śabda-vedhin) MBh.
(H3) mfn.
 śabdasparśarasa
śábda--sparśa-rasa [L=212837]
sound and touch and taste R.
(H3) m. pl.
 śabdātita
śabdā* tita [L=212846]
beyond the reach of sound (applied to the Supreme) MW.
(H3) mfn.
 śabdādi
śabdā* di [L=212847]
(scil. viaya q.v.) the objects of sense beginning with sound W.
(H3) m.
 śabdādidharmin
śabdā* di---dharmin [L=212848]
having the quality of sound &c (ib.)
(H4) mfn.
 śabdādimat
śabdā* di---mat [L=212848.1]
having the quality of sound &c ( S3arpk. ??)
(H4) mfn.
 śabdādhiṣṭhāna
śabdā* dhiṣṭhāna [L=212850]
L.
(H3) " sound-receptacle " , the ear
 śabdānurūpa
śabdā* nurūpa [L=212856]
conformity to or imitation of sound W.
(H3) n.
 śabdānusāra
śabdā* nusāra [L=212861]
following a sound
(H3) m.
 śabdānusārea
śabdā* nusārea [L=212862]
in the direction of a sound S3ak.
(H4) ind.
 śabdābhivaha
śabdā* bhivaha [L=212867]
(ā)n. conducting sound (as the auditory passage) Sus3r.
(H3) mf
 śabdārtha
śabdā* rtha [L=212874]
(du.) sound (or word) and sense Sa1h. (cf. artha-śabdau g. rāja-dantā*di)

VPra1t.

» śabdaśabdā*rtha-mañjūā)

cf. comp.)
(H3) m.
[L=212875]the nature or meaning of sounds
[L=212876]the meaning of a word (
[L=212877]sense or meaning of oral tradition (as a source of knowledge ;
 śabdārthagarbhavat
śabdā* rtha---garbha-vat [L=212879]
containing (virtually) sound and meaning Ra1matUp.
(H4) mfn.
 śabdālakāra
śabdā* lakāra [p= 1053,3] [L=212883]
embellishment of the sound (of a sentence by rhyme. alliteration &c , as opp. to arthā*l° q.v.) , a figure of speech depending for its pleasingness on sound or words (such as the yamaka and anuprā*sa , qq. vv.)
(H3) m.
 śabdendriya
śabde* ndriya [L=212894]
" sound-organ , the ear " Sus3r.
(H3) n.
 śabdotpatti
śabdo* tpatti [L=212895]
production or origin of sound TPra1t.
(H3) f.
 śabdaka
śabdaka [L=212897]
= śabda , a sound AgP.
(H2) m.
 śabdana
śabdana [L=212898]
sounding , sonorous Pa1n2. 3-2 , 148 Sch.
śabdana [L=212899]
sounding , a sound , noise W.
śabdana [L=212900]
(ifc.) speaking , talking about Cat.
(H2) mfn.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
 śabdāya
śabdāya [L=212902]
cf.śabd) Nom. A1. °yate ( Pa1n2. 3-1 , 17 ; exceptionally also °yati) , to make a sound (acc.) , cry , yell , bray Nir. MBh. &c : Caus. śabdāyayati , to cause a sound to be made by (instr.) Pa1n2. 1-4 , 52 Va1rtt. 1 Pat.  ; 
to cause any one (
acc.) to , cry by (instr.) Vop. v , 5.
(H2) (
 śaraśarāya
śaraśarāya [p= 1057,3] [L=213806]
yati (onomat.) , to hiss , make , hissing sound A1s3vS3r.
(H1) °
 śākha
śākha [p= 1063,1] [L=215040]
(ī)n. (fr. śakhá) relating to or made of a conch or any shell
śākha [L=215041]
the sound of a conch-shell L.
(H1) mf
(H1B) n.
 śābda
śābdá [p= 1065,2] [L=215539]
(ī)n. (fr. śabda) sonorous , sounding W.

opp. to ārtha q.v.) Sa1h.

esp.) resting on or enjoined by sacred sound (i.e. on the veda ; with brahman. n. = " the veda ") S3Br. &c

W.
śābdá [L=215543]
a philologist , grammarian RPra1t.
śābdá [L=215544]
a partic. sect Hcar.
(H1) mf
[L=215540]relating to sound (as
[L=215541]based on sounds , expressed in words oral , verbal , (
[L=215542]nominal (as inflection)
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m. pl.
 śābdika
śābdika [L=215551]
sonorous , uttering a sound Pa1n2. 4-4 , 34

W.
śābdika [L=215553]
" conversant with words " , a grammarian , lexicographer , Sin6ha7s. A1past.S3r. Sch.
(H2) mfn.
[L=215552]relating to sounds or words , verbal
(H2B) m.









śabdārtha
śabdā* rtha [L=212874]
(du.) sound (or word) and sense Sa1h. (cf. artha-śabdau g. rāja-dantā*di)

VPra1t.

» śabdaśabdā*rtha-mañjūā)

cf. comp.)
(H3) m.
[L=212875]the nature or meaning of sounds
[L=212876]the meaning of a word (
[L=212877]sense or meaning of oral tradition (as a source of knowledge ;





Alphabet-Words in Sanskrit (MW reverse search)



1 a (alphabet) 2 akṣaranyāsa (alphabet) 3 akṣarasamāmnāya (alphabet) 4 amoghā (alphabet) 5 ayogavāha (alphabet) 6 ā (alphabet) 7 ākṣarasamāmnāyika (alphabet) 8 i (alphabet) 9 ī (alphabet) 10 u (alphabet) 11 ū (alphabet) 12 (alphabet) 13 (alphabet) 14 (alphabet) 15 (alphabet) 16 e (alphabet) 17 ai (alphabet) 18 o (alphabet) 19 au (alphabet) 20 ka (alphabet) 21 kāmadhenutantra (alphabet) 22 kha (alphabet) 23 kharoṣṭī (alphabet) 24 khāsyalipi (alphabet) 25 ga (alphabet) 26 gha (alphabet) 27 ṅa (alphabet) 28 ca (alphabet) 29 mātṛkā (alphabet) 30 mātṛkākośa (alphabet) 31 lipi (alphabet) 32 varga (alphabet) 33 varṇakrama (alphabet) 34 varṇapāṭha (alphabet) 35 varṇamālā (alphabet) 36 varṇarāśi (alphabet) 37 varṇasaṃghāṭa (alphabet) 38 varṇasaṃghāta (alphabet) 39 varṇasamāmnāya (alphabet) 40 śabdarāśi (alphabet) 41 śabdarāśimaheśvara (alphabet) 42 śivasūtra (alphabet) 43 saguṇavatī (alphabet) 44 siddhamātrikā (alphabet) 45 ha (alphabet) 46 gurumukhī (alphabet)
 a
a 1 [p= 1,1] [L=1]

a 2 [L=3]
praghya q.v.) , a vocative particle ([a ananta , O viṣṇu]) T.

a 3 [L=4]
an , exc. a-ṛṇin) , a prefix corresponding to Gk. , ν , Lat. in , Goth. and Germ. un , Eng. in or un , and having a negative or privative or contrary sense (an-eka not one ; an-anta endless ; a-sat not good ; a-paśyat not seeing)

Inf. (a-svaptum not to sleep Ta1n2d2yaBr. ) and even to forms of the finite verb (a-sphayanti they do not desire BhP. S3is3. ) and to pronouns (a-sa not he S3is3. ; a-tad not that BhP. )

a-brāhmaa like a brahman T. )

a-yajña a miserable sacrifice)

cf. á-kara , an-udarā)

cf. a-kupya , a-pūpa). According to Pa1n2. 6-2 , 161, the accent may be optionally either on the first or last syllable in certain compounds formed with a (as á-tīkṣṇa or a-tīkṣṇá , á-śuci or a-śucí , án-anna or an-anná)

t accentuated on the first syllable before a is prefixed

also á-tūrta and a-tū́rta , á-bhinna and a-bhinná , &c
a 4 [L=5]
pronom. forms , in asya , atra , &c
a 5 [L=6]
veda often wanting , as in Homer , the fact being that originally the augment was only prefixed in principal sentences where it was accentuated , whilst it was dropped in subordinate sentences where the root-vowel took the accent).
a 6 [L=7]
N. of viṣṇu L. (especially as the first of the three sounds in the sacred syllable om).
(H1) the first letter of the alphabet
[L=1.1]the first short vowel inherent in consonants.
(H1) (
[L=3.1]interjection of pity , Ah!
(H1) (before a vowel
[L=4.1]rarely prefixed to
[L=4.2]occasionally denoting comparison (
[L=4.3]sometimes disparagement (
[L=4.4]sometimes diminutiveness (
[L=4.5]rarely an expletive (
[L=4.6]the same applies to stems ending in
[L=4.7]cf.
(H1) the base of some pronouns and
(H1) the augment prefixed to the root in the formation of the imperfect , aorist , and conditional tenses (in the
(H1) m.
 akaranyāsa
a-kára--nyāsa [p= 3,3] [L=605]
array of syllables or letters

(H3) m.
[L=606]the alphabet.
 akarasamāmnāya
a-kára--samāmnāya [L=617]
alphabet Pat. BhP.
(H3) m.
 amoghā
a-moghā [p= 83,1] [L=14358]
trumpet flower , Bignonia Suaveolens , Roxb.
a-moghā [L=14359]
a plant of which the seed is used as a vermifuge , Erycibe Paniculata Roxb.
a-moghā [L=14360]
Terminalia Citrina Roxb.
a-moghā [L=14361]
N. of a spear MBh. iii , 16990 and R. i , 29 , 12
a-moghā [L=14362]
(with or without rātri) " the unfalling one " a poetical N. of the night MBh.
a-moghā [L=14363]
a mystical N. of the letter k (being the last one of the alphabet)
a-moghā [L=14364]
N. of durgā L.
a-moghā [L=14365]
of the wife of śātanu
a-moghā [L=14366]
of one of the mothers in kanda's suite MBh. ix , 2639.
(H1B) f.
(H1B) f.
(H1B) f.
(H1B) f.
(H1B) f.
(H1B) f.
(H1B) f.
(H1B) f.
(H1B) f.
 ayogavāha
a-yoga--vāha [p= 85,3] [L=14939]
" (sounds) which occur (in the actual language) without being given (by grammarians) together with (the other letters of the alphabet) " , a term for anusvāra , visarjanīya , upadhmānīya , jihvāmūlīya , and the yamas Pat. on śivasūtra 5 and on Pa1n2. 8-3 , 5.
(H3) m.
 ā
ā 1 [p= 126,1] [L=22010]
a in far.
ā 2 [L=22011]
a particle of reminiscence Pa1n2. 1-1 , 14 Pat.

ās q.v.] , and of assent L. ([This particle remains unaltered in orthography even before vowels (which causes it to be sometimes confounded with 1. ās) Pa1n2. 1-1 , 14.])
ā 3 [L=22012]
N. of śiva L.

L.
ā 3 [L=22014]
N. of lak L.
ā́ 4 [L=22015]
» ā-kram &c ; in the veda , of course , the prefix is separable from the verb ; in a few cases RV. i , 10 , 11 and v , 64 , 5, a verb in the imperative is to be supplied ; with roots like gam , , and i , " to go " , and 1. , " to give " , it reverses the action ; e.g. ā-gacchati , " he comes " ; ā-datte , " he takes "). (As a prep. with a preceding acc.) near to , towards , to RV.

acc. , as am or váram) for RV.

acc.) up to .. exclusively AitBr.

abl.) from RV. AV.

e.g. bahúbhya ā́ , " from among many ") RV.

asmád ā́ , " towards us ") RV.

abl. cf. Pa1n2. 2-1 , 13 & 3 , 10) up to , to , as far as RV. AV. &c

RV. i , 30 , 21

loc.) in , at , on RV. AV. (As an adv. after words expressing a number or degree) fully , really , indeed (e.g. trír ā́ divás , " quite or fully three times a day " ; mahimā́ vām índrā*gnī pániṣṭha,ā́ , " your greatness , O indra and agni , is most praiseworthy indeed " , &c ) RV.
126,2] [p= 126,1] [L=22015.45]
subst. or adj.) " as , like " , (or it simply strengthens the sense of the preceding word) RV. , (after a verb) RV. v , 7 , 7 KenaUp.

RV. x , 16 , 11, or after both RV. x , 92 , 8] or, if there are more , after the last [ RV. iv , 57 , 1 and x , 75 , 5] ; » also ā*taś ca s.v.) In classical Sanskrit it may denote the limit " to " , " until " , " as far as " , " from " , either not including the object named or including it (sometimes with acc. or abl. or forming an adv.) e.g. ā-maraam or ā-maraāt , " till death " Pan5cat. (cf. ā-maraā*nta &c )

, " the twice-born including the cowherds " MBh. ii , 531

or ā-samudrāt , " as far as the ocean " or " from the ocean " (but not including it)

, " from a child " or " from childhood " or " to a child " (cf. Lat. [email protected]) MBh. iii , 1403

ine , " the fame of ini extends even to children "
ā́ 4 [L=22015.75]
mfn. " one whose arms reach down to the knees " R. i , 1 , 12
ā́ 4 [L=22015.80]
» also ākara- and ājanma-)
ā́ 4 [p= 125,2] [L=22015.85]
cf. ā-jarasám , ā-vyuám , ā-saptama , o*tsūyám.) Prefixed to adj. ([rarely to subst. ; cf. ā-kopa]) it implies diminution Pa1n2. 2-2 , 18 Comm. " a little " e.g. ā-piñjara mfn. a little red , reddish Ragh. xvi , 51
ā́ 4 [L=22015.90]
» also ā-pakva , o*ṣṇa , &c ) Some commentaries (e.g. Comm. on Ragh. iii , 8) occasionally give to ā in this application the meaning samantāt , " all through , completely " , as ā-nīla , " blue all round. "
(H1) the second vowel of the alphabet corresponding to the
(H1) ind.
[L=22011.1]also of compassion or pain [more correctly written 1.
(H1) m.
[L=22013]grandfather
(H1B) f.
(H1) (as a prefix to verbs , especially of motion , and their derivatives) near , near to , towards (
[L=22015.05](with a preceding noun in the
[L=22015.10](with a following
[L=22015.15](with a preceding
[L=22015.20]out of , from among (
[L=22015.25]towards (only in
[L=22015.30](with a following
[L=22015.35]from
[L=22015.40](with a preceding
[p= (after a
[L=22015.50](as a conjunctive particle) moreover , further , and (it is placed either between the two words connected [rarely after the second
[L=22015.55]ā-gopālā dvijātaya
[L=22015.60]ā-samudram
[L=22015.65]ā-kumāram
[L=22015.70]ā-kumāram yaśa
(H1B) ājānu-bāhu
(H1B) (
(H1B) (
(H1B) (
 ākarasamāmnāyika
ākarasamāmnāyika [p= 128,3] [L=22383]
(fr. ak°arasamā°mnāya , q.v.) belonging to the alphabet (as a letter) Pat.
(H1) mfn.
 i
Whitney Roots links: i1
i 1 [p= 163,2] [L=28533]
i short , and pronounced as that letter in kill &c
i 2 [p= 163,3] [L=28536]
an interjection of anger , calling , sorrow , distress , compassion , &c , (g. *di Pa1n2. 1-4 , 57 , &c )
i 3 [L=28537]
Nom. and Acc. sg. du. and pl. of the demonstrative pronoun idam , " this " or " that "

cf. ítara , itas , iti íd , idā́ , iyat , iva , iha: cf. also Lat. id ; Goth. ita ; Eng. it ; Old Germ. iz ; Mod. Germ. es.])
i 4 [L=28538]
N. of kāmadeva L.
i 5 [L=28539]
éti (Impv. 2. sg. ihí) and 1. P. A1. áyati , ayate ([cf.ay]) , (pf. iyāya [2. sg. iyátha AV. viii , 1 , 10 , and iyétha RV. ] fut. eyati ; aor. aiīt ; inf. etum , étave RV. and AV. , étavaí RV. étos RV. ityaí RV. i , 113 , 6 , 124 , 1) to go , walk  ; 
to flow
 ; 
to blow
 ; 
to advance , spread , get about
 ; 
to go to or towards (with
acc.) , come RV. AV. S3Br. MBh. R. Hit. Ragh. &c  ; 
to go away , escape , pass , retire
RV. AV. S3Br. R.  ; 
to arise from , come from
RV. ChUp.  ; 
to return (in this sense only
fut.) MBh. R.  ; 
(with
punar) to come back again , return MBh. R. Pan5cat. &c  ; 
to succeed
Mn. iii , 127  ; 
to arrive at , reach , obtain
RV. AV. S3Br. S3ak. Hit. &c  ; 
to fall into , come to
 ; 
to approach with prayers , gain by asking (
cf. ita)  ; 
to undertake anything (with
acc.)  ; 
to be employed in , go on with , continue in any condition or relation (with a
part. or instr. e.g. asura-rakasāni mdyamānāni yanti , " the asuras and Rakshases are being continually crushed " S3Br. i , 1 , 4 , 14 ; gavāmayanene*yu , " they , were engaged in the [festival called] gavāmayana " Ka1tyS3r. xxv , 5 , 2)  ; 
to appear , be
Kat2hUp. : Intens. A1. ī́yate ( RV. i , 30 , 18 ; p. iyāná RV. ; inf. iyádhyai RV. vi , 20 , 8) to go quickly or repeatedly  ; 
to come , wander , run , spread , get about
RV. AV. VS.  ; 
to appear , make one's appearance
RV. AV. Br2A1rUp.  ; 
to approach any one with requests (with two
acc.) , ask , request RV. AV. : Pass. ī́yate , to be asked or requested RV. : Caus. āyayati , to cause to go or escape Vop.  ; 
([
cf. Gk. ε-μι , -μεν ; Lat. e-o , i1-mus , i-ter , &c ; Lith. ei-mi4 , " I go " ; Slav. i-du7 , " I go " , i-ti , " to go " ; Goth. i-ddja , " I went. "])
(H1) the third vowel of the alphabet , corresponding to
(H1) ind.
(H1) base of
[L=28537.1]([
(H1) m.
(H1) cl.2 P.
 ī
ī 1 [p= 170,1] [L=29689]
i long , and having the sound of ee in feel.
ī 2 [L=29691]
N. of kandarpa , the god of love L.
ī 2 [L=29692]
(ī or īs) N. of lak L. ([also in MBh. xiii 1220, according to Ni1lak. (who reads puyacañcur ī)]).
ī 3 [L=29693]
an interjection of pain or anger

ī 4 [L=29694]
i. » 5. i.
(H1) the fourth letter of the alphabet , corresponding to
(H1) m.
(H1B) f.
(H1) ind.
[L=29693.1]a particle implying consciousness or perception , consideration , compassion.
(H1) for √
 u
u 1 [p= 171,3] [L=29997]
u in full.
u 2 [L=29999]
an interjection of compassion , anger L.

L.
u 3 [L=30000]
an enclitic copula used frequently in the vedas

nu and su , equivalent to) and , also , further

e.g. ya u , he on the contrary who &c ) This particle may serve to give emphasis , like id and eva , especially after prepositions or demonstrative pronouns , in conjunction with nu , vai , hi , cid , &c (e.g. ayám u vām purutámo.. johavīti [ RV. iii , 62 , 2] , this very person [your worshipper] invokes you &c ) It is especially used in the figure of speech called Anaphora , and particularly when the pronouns are repeated (e.g. tám u stua índram tám gṛṇīe [ RV. ii , 20 , 4] , him I praise , indra , him I sing). It may be used in drawing a conclusion , like the English " now " (e.g. tád u táthā ná kuryāt [ S3Br. v , 2 , 2 , 3] , that now he should not do in such a manner) , and is frequently found in interrogative sentences (e.g. ká u tác ciketa [ RV. i , 164 , 48] , who , I ask , should know that?) ini calls this particle to distinguish it from the interrogative u. In the pada-pāha it is written ūm. In the classical language u occurs only after atha , na , and kim , with a slight modification of the sense , and often only as an expletive (» kim)

- u or u - uta , on the one hand - on the other hand


u 4 [L=30001]
unoti (» vy-u RV. v , 31 , 1) : cl.2 A1. (1. sg. uvé RV. x , 86 , 7) : cl.1 A1. avate Dha1tup.  ; 
to call to , hail
 ; 
to roar , bellow (
» also o*ta = ā-uta).
u 5 [L=30002]
N. of śiva

brahman L.
(H1) the fifth letter and third short vowel of the alphabet , pronounced as the
(H1) ind.
[L=29999.1]a particle implying assent , calling , command
(H1) ind.
[L=30000.1](as a particle implying restriction and antithesis , generally after pronominals , prepositions , particles , and before
[L=30000.2]on the other hand (especially in connexion with a relative
[L=30000.3]u
[L=30000.4]partly - partly
[L=30000.5]as , well - as.
(H1) cl.5 P.
(H1) m.
[L=30003]also of
 ū
ū 1 [p= 221,1] [L=37938]
u long , and having the sound of that letter in the word rule).
ū 2 [L=37942]
an interjection of calling to


L.

ū 3 [L=37943]
( √av Pa1n2. 6-4 , 20), helping , protecting L.
ū 3 [L=37944]
(ūs) the moon L.
ū 3 [L=37945]
N. of śiva L.
ū 4 [L=37958]
( √ve Vop. xxvi , 73), weaving , sewing.
(H1) the sixth letter of the alphabet (corresponding to
(H1) ind.
[L=37942.1]of compassion
[L=37942.2]a particle implying promise to protect
[L=37942.3]a particle used at the beginning of a sentence.
(H1) mfn.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1) mfn.
 
Whitney Roots links: f
 1 [p= 223,2] [L=38404]
ri in merrily).
 2 [L=38407]
an interjection expressing laughter L.

L.

W.
 3 [L=38408]
heaven L.
 3 [L=38409]
N. of aditi L.
 4 [L=38410]
P. cchati , iyarti , ṛṇoti , and ṛṇvati (only Ved.)  ; 
āra , ariyati , ārat , and ārīt , to go , move , rise , tend upwards RV. Nir. &c  ; 
to go towards , meet with , fall upon or into , reach , obtain
RV. AV. S3Br. ChUp. MBh. &c  ; 
to fall to one's share , occur , befall (with
acc.) RV. AitBr. S3Br. Mn. &c  ; 
to advance towards a foe , attack , invade
S3Br. MBh. Mn.  ; 
to hurt , offend
S3Br. vii  ; 
to move , excite , erect , raise , (
íyarti vā́cam , he raises his voice RV. ii , 42 , 2 ; stómān iyarmi , I sing hymns RV. i , 116 , 1) RV. AV. vi , 22 , 3 : Caus. arpayati , to cause to move , throw , cast AV. x , 9 , 1 Ragh. &c  ; 
to cast through , pierce
AV.  ; 
to put in or upon , place , insert , fix into or upon , fasten
RV. S3a1k. Kum. Bhag. &c  ; 
to place on , apply
Katha1s. Ratna1v. Ragh. &c  ; 
to direct or turn towards
R. Bhag. &c  ; 
to deliver up , surrender , offer , reach over , present , give
Ya1jn5. Pan5cat. Vikr. &c  ; 
to give back , restore
Mn. viii , 191 Ya1jn5. S3ak. &c : Ved. Intens. alarti RV. viii , 48 , 8  ; 
(2.
sg. alari RV. viii , 1 , 7 Pa1n2. 7-4 , 65)  ; 
to move or go towards with speed or zeal: Class.
Intens. A1. arāryate ( Pa1n2. 7-4 , 30) , to wander about , haste towards Bhat2t2. Pat. Ka1s3. ; ([cf. Gk. ρ-νυ-μι , ρ-έ-της , ρό-ω , &c : Zend √ir: Lat. or-ior , re-mus , aro: Goth. argan: Angl.Sax. a1r: Old High Germ. ruo-dar , ar-an: Lith. ir-ti , " to row " ; ar-ti , " to plough. "])
(H1) the seventh vowel of the Sanskrit alphabet and peculiar to it (resembling the sound of
(H1) ind.
[L=38407.1]a particle implying abuse
[L=38407.2]a sound inarticulate or reiterated as in stammering
(H1) m.
(H1B) f.
(H1) cl.1.3.5.
 
 1 [p= 227,2] [L=39134]
and resembling the sound of ri in marine , but after labials more like ru ; it generally only appears in some forms of nouns in , viz. in the gen. pl. of all genders , in the acc. pl. m. and f. and in nom. acc. and voc. pl. n.)
 2 [L=39136]
an interjection of terror L.


L.

L.
 3 [L=39137]
a bhairava L.

dānava L.
 3 [L=39139]
the mother of the gods
 3 [L=39140]
of the demons L.
 3 [L=39141]
recollection
 3 [L=39142]
going , motion L.
 3 [L=39143]
a breast L.
 4 [L=39144]
q.v.
(H1) the eighth vowel of the alphabet (the corresponding long vowel to
(H1) ind.
[L=39136.1]a particle implying reproach
[L=39136.2]warding off
[L=39136.3]a particle used at the beginning of a sentence
(H1) m.
[L=39138]a
(H1B) f.
(H1B) f.
(H1B) f.
(H1B) f.
(H1B) n.
(H1) for 4.
 
 1 [L=39145]
lry in revelry ; it only appears in some forms of √kp).
 2 [L=39148]
a mountain L.

L.
(H1) the ninth vowel of the alphabet (resembling the sound
(H1) m.
[L=39149]the earth , the mother of the gods
 
 1 [L=39151]
, entirely artificial and only appearing in the works of some grammarians and lexicographers).
 2 [L=39152]
śiva L.
 2 [L=39153]
the mother of the cow of plenty
 2 [L=39154]
the mother of the dānavas
 2 [L=39155]
wife of a daitya
 2 [L=39156]
mother
 2 [L=39157]
divine female
 2 [L=39158]
female nature.
(H1) the tenth vowel of the alphabet (the corresponding long vowel to
(H1) m.
(H1B) f.
(H1B) f.
(H1B) f.
(H1B) f.
(H1B) f.
(H1B) f.
 e
e 1 [L=39159]
e as pronounced in prey , grey).
e 2 [L=39161]
an interjection MaitrS.





L.
e 3 [L=39162]
viṣṇu L.
e* 4 [L=39163]
ā-i) P. -eti , to come near or towards , go near , approach RV. AV. S3Br. &c  ; 
(with and without
punar) to come back , come again to AitBr. MBh. Katha1s. &c  ; 
to reach , attain , enter , come into (a state or position)
Mn. xii , 125 Megh. Prab. &c  ; 
to submit , fall to one's share
ChUp. v , 14 , 1 (āyayanti ?) Kat2hUp. : Intens. A1. (3. du. -iyāte ; 1. pl. -īmahe) to hasten near RV. vii , 39 , 2  ; 
to request
VS. iv , 5.
(H1) the eleventh vowel of the alphabet (corresponding to the letter
(H1) ind.
[L=39161.1]a particle of recollection
[L=39161.2]addressing
[L=39161.3]censure
[L=39161.4]contempt
[L=39161.5]compassion
(H1) m.
(H1) (
 ai
ai 1 [p= 233,1] [L=40290]
ei in height.
ai 2 [L=40292]
an interjection MaitrS.



L.
ai 3 [L=40293]
N. of śiva L.
(H1) the twelfth vowel of the alphabet and having the sound of
(H1) ind.
[L=40292.1]a particle of addressing
[L=40292.2]summoning
[L=40292.3]remembering
(H1) m.
 o
o 1 [p= 235,1] [L=40584]
o).
o 2 [L=40586]
an interjection L.




L.
o 3 [L=40587]
N. of brahmā L.
o* 4 [L=40588]
ā-u).
(H1) the thirteenth vowel of the alphabet (corresponding to English
(H1) ind.
[L=40586.1]a particle of addressing
[L=40586.2]calling
[L=40586.3]reminiscence
[L=40586.4]of compassion
(H1) m.
(H1) (
 au
au 1 [p= 236,2] [L=40789]
ou in our).
au 2 [L=40791]
an interjection




L.
au 3 [L=40792]
N. of ananta or śea L.

L.

setu or sacred syllable of the śūdras , Ka1lika1P. ?? ([ T. ])
au 3 [L=40795]
(aus) the earth L.
(H1) the fourteenth vowel of the alphabet (having the sound of English
(H1) ind.
[L=40791.1]a particle of addressing
[L=40791.2]calling
[L=40791.3]prohibition
[L=40791.4]ascertainment
(H1) m.
[L=40793]a sound
[L=40794]the
(H1B) f.
 ka
ka 1 [p= 240,2] [L=41332]
k in keep or king).
 2 [L=41336]
,,kim , interrog. pron. (» kim and 2. kad , and cf. the following words in which the interrogative base ka appears , katama,katara,kati,katham,kadā,karhi, , &c ) , who? which? what? In its declension ka follows the pronoun tad except in nom. acc. sing. neut. , where kim has taken the place of kad or kat in classical Sanskrit
240,3] [p= 240,2] [L=41336.1]
kad is found in the veda (» Gram. ?? 227) ; ([cf. Zd. ka , ko7 , kA7 , kat ; Gk. πόθεν , πς , (Ion. κόθεν , κς ,) τίς , τί ; Lat. quis , quid ; Lith. kas ; Goth. hvas , hvo7 , hva , Angl.Sax. hwa1 , hwaet ; Eng. who , what.]) The interrogative sentence introduced by ka is often terminated by iti (e.g. kasya sa putra iti kathyatām , let it be said , " whose son is he? ") , but iti may be omitted and the sentence lose its direct interrogative character (e.g. kasya sa putro na jñāyate , it is not known whose son he is) . ka with or without √1. as may express " how is it possible that? " " what power have I , you , they , &c ? " (e.g. ke mama dhanvino'nye , what can the other archers do against me? ke āvām paritrātum , what power have we to rescue you?) ka is often connected with a demonstrative pron. (e.g. ko 'yam āyāti , who comes here?) or with the potential (e.g. ko hari nindet , who will blame hari?) ka is sometimes repeated (e.g. ka ko 'tra , who is there? kān kān , whom? whom? i.e. which of them? cf. Gram. 54) , and the repetition is often due to a kind of attraction (e.g. keā ki śāstram adhyayanīyam , which book is to be read by whom? Gram. 836. a). When kim is connected with the inst. c. of a noun or with the indecl. participle it may express " what is gained by doing so , &c ? " (= ko'rthas)

e.g. ki vilambena , what is gained by delay? kim bahunā , what is the use of more words? dhanena ki yo na dadāti , what is the use of wealth to him who does not give? with inst. and gen. , nīruja kim auadhai , what is the use of medicine to the healthy?) ka is often followed by the particles iva , u , nāma , nu , , svid , some of which serve merely to generalize the interrogation (e.g. kim iva etad , what can this be? ka u śravat , who can possibly hear? ko nāma jānāti , who indeed knows? ko nv ayam , who , pray , is this? ki nu kāryam , what is to be done? ko vā devād anya , who possibly other than a god? kasya svid hdaya*sti , of what person is there no heart?) ka is occasionally used alone as an indefinite pronoun , especially in negative sentences (e.g. na kasya ko vallabha , no one is a favourite of any one ; *nyo jānāti ka , no one else knows ; katha sa ghātayati kam , how does he kill any one?) Generally , however , ka is only made indefinite when connected with the particles ca,caná,cid, ,andápi , in which case ka may sometimes be preceded by the relative ya (e.g. ye ke ca , any persons whatsoever ; yasyai kasyai ca devatāyai , to any deity whatsoever ; yāni kāni ca mitrāi , any friends whatsoever ; yat kica , whatever) . The particle cana , being composed of caandna , properly gives a negative force to the pronoun (e.g. yasmād indrād te kicana , without which indra there is nothing) , but the negative sense is generally dropped (e.g. kaścana , any one ; na kaścana , no one) , and a relative is sometimes connected with it (e.g. yat kicana , anything whatsoever) . Examples of cid with the interrogative are common

and api are not so common , but the latter is often found in classical Sanskrit (e.g. kaścid , any one ; kecid , some ; na kaścid , no one ; na kicid api , nothing whatsoever ; ya kaścid , any one whatsoever ; kecit - kecit , some - others ; yasmin kasmin vā deśe , in any country whatsoever ; na ko 'pi , no one ; na kimapi , nothing whatever) . ka may sometimes be used , like 2. kad , at the beginning of a compound. » ka-pūya , &c
 3 [L=41337]
(according to native authorities) N. of prajāpati or of a prajāpati VS. xx , 4 ; xxii , 20 TS. i S3Br. &c

brahman MBh. i , 32 BhP. iii , 12 , 51 ; xii , 13 , 19 ; 20

daka BhP. ix , 10 , 10

viṣṇu L.

yama L.

garua

Tattvas.

VarBr2S.

L.

L.

L.

L.

L.

L.

L.

L.

L.

L.

kāma-granthi (?)
 3 [L=41356]
happiness , joy , pleasure ChUp. iv , 10 , 5 Nir. &c
 3 [L=41357]
water MaitrS. i , 10 , 10 S3Br. x Ya1jn5. &c
 3 [L=41358]
the head
 3 [L=41359]
hair , a head of hair L.
 3 [L=41360]
(also regarded as ind. ; cf. 1. kam.)
ka 4 [L=41365]
taddhita affix (much used in forming adjectives ; it may also be added to nouns to express diminution , deterioration , or similarity e.g. putraka , a little son ; aśvaka , a bad horse or like a horse).
(H1) the first consonant of the alphabet , and the first guttural letter (corresponding in sound to
(H1) kas
[p= but the old form
[L=41336.2](
[L=41336.3]
(H1) m.
[L=41338]of
[L=41339]of
[L=41340]of
[L=41341]of
[L=41342]of
[L=41343]the soul
[L=41344]a particular comet
[L=41345]the sun
[L=41346]fire
[L=41347]splendour , light
[L=41348]air
[L=41349]a peacock
[L=41350]the body
[L=41351]time
[L=41352]wealth
[L=41353]sound
[L=41354]a king
[L=41355]=
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1) a
 kāmadhenutantra
kā́ma--dhenu---tantra [p= 272,2] [L=48095]
N. of wk. on the mystical signification of the letters of the alphabet.
(H4) n.
 kha
kha 1 [p= 334,1] [L=60669]
MSS. and Inscr. confounded with a).
kha 2 [p= 334,2] [L=60671]
the sun L.
khá 3 [L=60672]
( √khan) a cavity , hollow , cave , cavern , aperture RV.

AV. xiv , 2 , 1 and 6 Pra1t. Kat2hUp. Gaut. Mn. &c

BhP. viii , 3 , 23

anat.) the glottis W.

Mn. ix , 43

RV. S3Br. xiv

S3Br. xiv Pras3nUp. Mn. xii , 120 &c

L.

(the Supreme Spirit) W.

arithm.) a cypher Su1ryas. Sa1h.

anusvāra represented by a circle (bindu) L.

of the tenth astrological mansion VarBr2.

L.

L.

L.

su-kha , du-kha) L.

L.

L.
kha [p= 1325,3] [L=329580]
comp.)
(H1) the second consonant of the alphabet (being the aspirate of the preceding consonant ; often in
(H1) m.
(H1) n.
[L=60673]an aperture of the human body (of which there are nine , viz. the mouth , the two ears , the two eyes , the two nostrils , and the organs of excretion and generation)
[L=60674](hence) an organ of sense
[L=60675](in
[L=60676]" the hole made by an arrow " , wound
[L=60677]the hole in the nave of a wheel through which the axis runs
[L=60678]vacuity , empty space , air , ether , sky
[L=60679]heaven
[L=60680]brahma
[L=60681](in
[L=60682]the
[L=60683]N.
[L=60684]talc
[L=60685]a city
[L=60686]a field
[L=60687]happiness (a meaning derived fr.
[L=60688]action
[L=60689]understanding
(H2) (in
 kharoṣṭī
kharoṣṭī [p= 337,3] [L=61504]
a kind of written character or alphabet Lalit. x , 29

roṭṭhi Jain.
(H1) f.
[L=61505]°
 khāsyalipi
khāsya-lipi [p= 339,3] [L=61891]
(fr. khasa?) , a kind of written character or alphabet Lalit. x , 32.
(H1) f.
 ga
ga 1 [p= 341,1] [L=62146]
ga 1 [L=62146.1]
N. of gae*śa L.
ga 2 [p= 341,2] [L=62148]
(ā)n. ( √gam) only ifc. going , moving (e.g. yāna- , going in a carriage Mn. iv , 120 Ya1jn5. iii , 291 ; śīghra- , going quickly R. iii , 31 , 3 ; cf. antarika- &c )

cf. anya-strī-)

cf. kaṇṭha-)

VarBr2. Ragh. iii , 13 Katha1s. &c (e.g. pañcama- , abiding in or keeping the fifth place , S3rut. )

R. vi , 70 , 59 BhP. &c (cf. a- , agra- , a-jihma- , atyanta- , &c ; agre-gá , &c )
ga 3 [L=62153]
(ī Pa1n2. 3-2 , 8)n. ( √gai) only ifc. singing (cf. chando- , purāa- , sāma-)
ga 3 [L=62154]
a gandharva or celestial musician L.
ga 3 [L=62156]
id. L.
ga 4 [L=62157]
guru to denote) a long syllable W.

gāndhāra to denote) the third note.
(H1) (3rd consonant of the alphabet) , the soft guttural having the sound g in give
(H1B) m.
(H1) mf
[L=62149]having sexual intercourse with (
[L=62150]reaching to (
[L=62151]staying , being , abiding in
[L=62152]relating to or standing in connection with
(H1) mf
(H1B) m.
(H1B) n.
(H1) (used in works on prosody as an abbreviation of the word
[L=62157.1](in music used as an abbreviation of the word
 gha
gha 1 [p= 375,1] [L=69207]
gha 2 [L=69209]
(used to lay stress on a word) at least , surely , verily , indeed , especially (= Gk. γε) , RV. AV. v , 13 , 10 & 11 ; vi , 1 , 3. In the sahitā the final vowel is generally lengthened (ghā cf. Pa1n2. 6-3 , 133)

utá , utó , utá vā , cid , , ) or by a pronoun or a preposition

iva and íd

iva and íd aha , or between and íd

e.g. ā́ ghā gamad yádi śrávat , " he will surely come when he hears " RV. i , 30 , 8), i , 161 , 8 ; viii , 46 , 4.
gha 3 [L=69210]
( √han) ifc. " striking , killing " cf. jīva- , a- , i- , rāja- , &c (cf. also parigha)
gha 4 [L=69212]
a rattling or gurgling or tinkling sound L.

L.
(H1) the 4th consonant of the Sanskrit alphabet (aspirate of the preceding).
(H1) ind.
[L=69209.1]as a rule it is preceded by other particles (
[L=69209.2]it is also found between
[L=69209.3]or between
[L=69209.4]sometimes it occurs in the clause which depends on a conditional or relative sentence (
(H1) mfn.
(H1) m.
[L=69213]a bell
 a
a 1 [p= 380,1] [L=70275]

a 2 [L=70277]
an object of sense L.

L.

(bhairava) L.
(H1) the 5th consonant of the Sanskrit alphabet , nasal of the 1st class. No word in use begins with this letter
[L=70275.1]it is usually found as the 1st member of a conjunct consonant preceded by a vowel.
(H1) m.
[L=70278]desire for any sensual object
[L=70279]śiva
 ca
ca 1 [L=70281]
ch in church.
ca 2 [p= 380,2] [p= 380,1] [L=70283]
and , both , also , moreover , as well as (= τε , Lat. que , placed like these particles as an enclitic after the word which it connects with what precedes ; when used with a personal pronoun this must appear in its fuller accented form (e.g. táva ca máma ca [not te ca me ca] , " both of thee and me ") , when used after verbs the first of them is accented Pa1n2. 8-1 , 58 f. ; it connects whole sentences as well as parts of sentences ; in RV. the double ca occurs more frequently than the single (e.g. ahá ca tvá ca , " I and thou " , viii , 62 , 11) ; the double ca may also be used somewhat redundantly in class. Sanskrit (e.g. kva hariakānā jīvita*tilola kva ca vajra-sārā śarās te , " where is the frail existence , of fawns and where are thy adamantine arrows? " S3ak. i , 10) ; in later literature , however , the first ca is more usually omitted (e.g. aha tva ca) , and when more than two things are enumerated only one ca is often found (e.g. tejasā yaśasā lakmyā sthityā ca parayā , " in glory , in fame , in beauty , and in high position " Nal. xii , 6) ; elsewhere , when more than two things are enumerated , ca is placed after some and omitted after others (e.g. ṛṇa-dātā ca vaidyaś ca śrotriyo nadī , " the payer of a debt and a physician [and] a Brahman [and] a river " Hit. i , 4 , 55) ; in Ved. and even in class. Sanskrit [ Mn. iii , 20 ; ix , 322 Hit. ] , when the double ca would generally be used , the second may occasionally be omitted (e.g. indraś ca soma , " both indra [and thou] soma " RV. vii , 104 , 25 ; durbhedyaś cā*śusadheya , " both difficult to be divided [and] quickly united " Hit. i) ; with lexicographers ca may imply a reference to certain other words which are not expressed (e.g. kamaṇḍalau ca karaka , " the word karaka has the meaning " pitcher " and other meanings ") ; sometimes ca is = eva , even , indeed , certainly , just (e.g. su-cintita cau*adha na nāma-mātrea karoty arogam , " even a well-devised remedy does not cure a disease by its mere name " Hit. ; yāvanta eva te tāvāśca sa , " as great as they [were] just so great was he " Ragh. xii , 45) ; occasionally ca is disjunctive , " but " , " on the contrary " , " on the other hand " , " yet " , " nevertheless " (varam ādyau na cā*ntima , " better the two first but not the last " Hit. ; śāntam idam āśrama-pada sphurati ca bāhu , " this hermitage is tranquil yet my arm throbs " S3ak. i , 15) ; ca-ca , though-yet Vikr. ii , 9 ; ca-na ca , though - yet not Pat. ; ca - na tu (v.l. nanu) id. , Ma1lav. iv , 8 ; na ca - ca , though not - yet Pat. ; ca may be used for , " either " , " or " (e.g. iha cā*mutra vā , " either here or hereafter " Mn. xii , 89 ; strī vā pumān vā yac cā*nyat sattvam , " either a woman or a man or any other being " R. ) , and when a neg. particle is joined with ca the two may then be translated by " neither " , " nor " ; occasionally one ca or one na is omitted (e.g. na ca paribhoktu nai*va śaknomi hātum , " I am able neither to enjoy nor to abandon " S3ak. v , 18 ; na pūrvā*he nā ca parā*he , " neither in the forenoon nor in the afternoon ") ; ca-ca may express immediate connection between two acts or their simultaneous occurrence (e.g. mama ca mukta tamasā mano manasijena dhanui śaraś ca niveśita , " no sooner is my mind freed from darkness than a shaft is fixed on his bow by the heart-born god " , vi , 8) ; ca is sometimes = ce*d , " if " (cf. Pa1n2. 8-1 , 30 ; the verb is accented) RV. AV. MBh. Vikr. ii , 20 Bhartr2. ii , 45 ; ca may be used as an expletive (e.g. anyaiś ca kratubhiś ca , " and with other sacrifices ") ; ca is often joined to an adv. like eva , api , tathā , tathai*va , &c , either with or without a neg. particle (e.g. vairia no*paseveta sahā*ya caiva vairia , " one ought not to serve either an enemy or the ally of an enemy " Mn. iv , 133) ; (» eva , api , &c ) For the meaning of ca after an interrogative » 2. , 2. kathā́ , kím , kvá) ; ([cf. τε , Lat. que , pe (in nempe &c ) ; Goth. uh ; Zd. ca ; Old Pers. ca1.])
ca 3 [L=70287]
pure L.

L.

L.

L.
ca 3 [L=70291]
a thief. L.
ca 3 [L=70292]
the moon L.
ca 3 [L=70293]
a tortoise L.
ca 3 [L=70294]
śiva L.
(H1) the 20th letter of the alphabet , 1st of the 2nd (or palatal) class of consonants , having the sound of
(H1) ind.
(H1) mfn.
[L=70288]moving to and fro
[L=70289]mischievous
[L=70290]seedless
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
 māt
māt [p= 807,3] [L=162408]
» next
māt [L=162410]
a mother (also fig. = source , origin) Ka1v. Katha1s. Pur.

cf. under māt) RTL. 188

L.

Das3.

of 8 veins on both sides of the neck (prob. so called after the 8 divine mother) Sus3r.

of partic. diagrams (written in characters to which a magical power is ascribed ; also the alphabet so employed ; prob. only the 14 vowels with anusvāra and visarga were originally so called after the 16 divine magical) Ra1matUp. Pan5car.

Hcat.

pl.) Lalit.

indra's banner VarBr2S.

of the works included in the abhidharma-piaka Buddh.

aryaman BhP.

karaa L.
(H2B) f.
(H2) f.
[L=162411]a divine mother (
[L=162412]a nurse
[L=162413]a grandmother
[L=162414]N.
[L=162415]N.
[L=162416]any alphabet
[L=162417](
[L=162418]a wooden peg driven into the ground for the support of the staff of
[L=162419]N.
[L=162420]of the wife of
[L=162421]=
 mātkākośa
mātkā--kośa [L=162422]
N. of wk. (on the employment of the alphabet in cabalistic diagrams).
(H3) m.
 lipi
lipi [p= 902,2] [L=182617]
(accord. to L. also lipī) smearing , anointing &c (» -kara)

L.
902,3] [L=182619]
Ka1v. Katha1s.

Naish. Lalit.

lipim-āp , with gen. , " to assume the appearance of " ; citrā lipi , " to decorate beautifully ") Vcar.
(H2) f.
[L=182618]painting , drawing
[p= writing , letters , alphabet , art or manner of writing
[L=182620]anything written , manuscript , inscription , letter , document
[L=182621]outward appearance (
 varga
várga [p= 923,3] [L=187198]
(accented only in Nigh. ) (fr. √ vj) one who excludes or removes or averts KaushUp.

ifc. f(ā).) a separate division , class , set , multitude of similar things (animate or inanimate) , group , company , family , party , side (mostly ifc. e.g. catur- , tri-v° q.v. ; often pl. for sg.) Ka1tyS3r. Pra1t. &c
924,1] [p= 923,3] [L=187198.10]
esp.) any series or group of words classified together (as manuya-vanas-pati-v° &c ) , or a class or series of consonants in the alphabet (seven such classes being given , viz. ka-varga , " the class of Guttural letters " ca-kāra-v° , or ca-v° , " the Palatals " ; a-v° " the Cerebrals " ; ta-v° " the Dentals " ; pa-v° " the Labials " ; ya-v° " the Semivowels " ; śa-v° " the Sibilants " , and the aspirate h cf. varga-dvitīya and -prathama) Pra1t. VarBr2S. Vop.

VarBr2S.

tri-varga (q.v.) BhP.

esp.) a subdivision of an adhyāya in the g-veda (which accord. to the mere mechanical division , contains 8 āṣṭakas or 64 adhyāyas or 2006 vargas ; cf. maṇḍala) and a similar subdivision in the bhad-devatā

alg.) the square of a number Col. (e.g. pañca-v° , square of five cf. bhinna-v°)

bala , strength Naigh. ii , 9

of a country Buddh.
(H1) m.
[L=187198.05](
[p= (
[L=187198.15]everything comprehended under any department or head , everything included under a category , province or sphere of.
[L=187198.20]=
[L=187198.25]a section , chapter , division of a book , (
[L=187198.30](in
[L=187198.35]=
[L=187198.40]N.
 varakrama
vára--krama [p= 924,2] [L=187312]
order or succession of colours Ka1tyS3r. Sch.

°mea ind. according to the order of castes) Prab.

W.

partic. krama or method of reciting Vedic texts (» under krama) TPra1t.
(H3) m.
[L=187313]order of castes (
[L=187314]order or series of letters , alphabetical arrangement , alphabet
[L=187315]a
 varapāha
vára--pāha [p= 924,3] [L=187360]
" letter-register " , the alphabet Pat.
(H3) m.
 varamālā
vára--mālā [L=187383]
order or series of letters (esp. rows of letters written on a board or in a diagram) , the alphabet L.
(H3) f.
 vararāśi
vára--rāśi [L=187387]
" multitude or series of letters " , the alphabet RPra1t. , Introd. Sarvad.
(H3) m.
 varasaghāa
vára--saghāa [p= 925,1] [L=187421]
Pat. ) m. " assemblage or aggregate of letters " , the alphabet.
(H3) (
 varasaghāta
vára--saghāta [L=187422]
Pat. ) m. " assemblage or aggregate of letters " , the alphabet.
(H3) (
 varasamāmnāya
vára--samāmnāya [L=187423]
VPra1t. &c ) m. " assemblage or aggregate of letters " , the alphabet.
(H3) (
 śabdarāśi
śábda--rāśi [p= 1053,1] [L=212769]
(in phil.) a collection of sounds or words or in fallible verbal teachings (said of the veda)

(H3) m.
[L=212770]" collection of sounds or letters " , the alphabet
 śabdarāśimaheśvara
śábda--rāśi---mahe* śvara [L=212771]
" great lord of the alphabet " , N. of śiva (as the revealer of grammar to ini) RTL. 84 , 1 Cat.
(H4) m.
 śivasūtra
śivá--sūtra [p= 1075,3] [L=217852]
(cf. spanda-sūtra) N. of the aphorisms of the śaiva philosophy (attributed to the god śiva) Sarvad.

of the 14 sūtras with which ini opens his grammar (containing a peculiar method of arranging the alphabet or alphabetical sounds , said to have been communicated to him by the god śiva)
(H3) n.
[L=217853]N.
 saguavatī
sa--gua---vatī [p= 1125,1] [L=227886]
N. of wk. (on the mystic power of the letters of the alphabet , ascribed to śakarācārya) Cat.
(H4) f.
 siddhamātrikā
siddha--mātrikā [p= 1215,2] [L=244404]
N. of a partic. alphabet L.

Cat.
(H3) f.
[L=244405]of a goddess
 ha
ha 1 [p= 1286,1] [L=260028]
nāgarī alphabet (in ini's system belonging to the guttural class , and usually pronounced like the English h in hard ; it is not an original letter , but is mostly derived from an older gh , rarely from dh or bh).
ha 2 [L=260031]
(only L. ) a form of śiva or bhairava (cf. nakulī*śa)


i.e. the arithmetical figure which symbolizes o)








ṣṇu







pāpa-haraa

sakopa-vāraa

śuka
ha 2 [L=260031.40]
laughter
ha 2 [L=260031.44]
the Supreme Spirit
ha 2 [L=260031.46]
pleasure , delight
ha 2 [L=260031.48]
a weapon
ha 2 [L=260031.50]
the sparkling of a gem
ha 2 [L=260031.52]
calling , calling to the sound of a lute
ha 2 [L=260031.54]
= aham (?). IndSt.
ha 2 [L=260031.56]
mad , drunk.
ha 3 [L=260032]
(prob. orig. identical with 2. gha , and used as a particle for emphasizing a preceding word , esp. if it begins a sentence closely connected with another ; very frequent in the brāhmaas and sūtras , and often translatable by) indeed , assuredly , verily , of course , then &c (often with other particles e.g. with tv eva , u , sma , vai &c ; na ha , " not indeed " ; also with interrogatives and relatives e.g. yad dha , " when indeed " ; kad dha , " what then? " sometimes with impf. or pf. [cf. Pa1n2. 3-2 , 116] ; in later language very commonly used as a mere expletive , esp. at the end of a verse) RV. &c &c
ha 4 [L=260033]
(ā)n. (fr. √ han) killing , destroying , removing (only ifc. ; » arāti- , vtra- , śatruha &c )
ha 5 [L=260034]
(ā)n. (fr. √3. ) abandoning , deserting , avoiding (ifc. ; » an-oka- and vāpī-ha)
ha [p= 1287,2] [L=260298]
4. ha , [p= 1286,1].
ha [p= 1296,2] [L=262509]
5. ha , [p= 1286,1].
(H1) the thirty-third and last consonant of the
(H1) m.
[L=260031.02]water
[L=260031.04]a cipher (
[L=260031.06]meditation , auspiciousness
[L=260031.08]sky , heaven , paradise
[L=260031.10]blood
[L=260031.12]dying
[L=260031.14]fear
[L=260031.16]knowledge
[L=260031.18]the moon
[L=260031.20]vi
[L=260031.22]war , battle
[L=260031.24]horripilation
[L=260031.26]a horse
[L=260031.28]pride
[L=260031.30]a physician
[L=260031.32]cause , motive
[L=260031.34]=
[L=260031.36]=
[L=260031.38]=
(H1B) mf.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) ind.
(H1B) mfn.
(H1) ind.
(H1) mf
(H1) mf
(H2) »
(H2) »
 gurumukhī
guru--mukhī [p= 1326,2] [L=330450.3]
N. of a partic. alphabet used by the Sikhs (a modification of devanāgarī), RTL. 164
(H3) f.