The Joyous Meditation Teachings of Lorin Roche


Polysemy


Polysemy (pronounced /pəˈlɪsɨmi/ or /ˈpɒlɨsiːmi/)[1][2] (from the Greek: πολυ-, poly-, "many" and σήμα, sêma, "sign") is the capacity for a sign (e.g., a word, phrase, etc.) or signs to have multiple meanings (sememes), i.e., a large semantic field.Charles Fillmore and Beryl Atkins’ definition stipulates three elements: (i) the various senses of a polysemous word have a central origin, (ii) the links between these senses form a network, and (iii) understanding the ‘inner’ one contributes to understanding of the ‘outer’ one.[3]Polysemy is a pivotal concept within social sciences, such as media studies and linguistics. - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Good brief
overview of polysemy at the University of Texas.
Traditionally, two types of lexical amibiguity are distinguished: homophony refers to cases in which two words “accidentally” have the same phonological form (e.g., bank), whereas polysemy refers to the phenomenon that one and the same word acquires different, though obvi- ously related, meanings, often with respect to particular contexts. Consider the following exam- ples of homophony (cf. Pustejovsky (1995): p. 27):
(1) a. Mary walked along the bank of the river. b. HarborBank is the richest bank in the city.
(2) a. Drop me a line when you are in Boston. b. We built a fence along the property line.
(3) a. First we leave the gate, then we taxi down the runway. b. John saw the taxi down the street.
(4) a. The discussion turned on the feasibility of the scheme. b. The bull turned on the matador.
(5) a. The judge asked the defendant to approach the bar. b. The defendant was in the pub at the bar. c. He bought a bar of soap.


Polysemy in Sanskrit




Literary India: comparative studies in aesthetics, colonialism, ... - Page 179
unknown
Patrick Colm Hogan, Lalita Pandit - 1995 - 289 pages - Preview
What complicates a translator's task is not only the presence of puns like the ones in Bhartrihari's or Yeats's poetry, but also the interaction in the original text between polysemy and punning. "Padmaraga," the Sanskrit term for " ruby ...

books.google.com
Research trends in lexicography, Sanskrit, and linguistics: ...
unknown
K. S. Nagaraja, Sumitra Mangesh Katre, Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute - 2007 - 238 pages - Snippet view
Polysemy, homonymy and synonymy Closely connected with the lexical meanings are polysemy (anekdrthata), homonymy (sabhanga slesa) and synonymy (samdndrthata). Like all other languages, Sanskrit too has a large number of polysemous words ...






Sanskrit Words for Metaphor



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Yuktarupaka - an appropriate metaphor
Rupaka - having form, figurative
śliṣṭarūpaka - having ambiguity as a metaphor


yuktarūpaka
yuktá--rūpaka [p= 853,3] [L=171779]
an appropriate metaphor Ka1vya7d.
(H3) n.
 rūpaka
rūpaka [p= 886,2] [L=179213]
having form , figurative , metaphorical , illustrating by figurative language Sa1h.
rūpaka [L=179214]
a partic. coin (prob. a rupee) Var. Pan5cat. &c
rūpaka [L=179215]
(in music) a kind of measure Sam2gi1t. (cf. -tāla)
rūpaka [L=179218]
form , figure , shape , appearance (mostly ifc. , with f(ā). , = having the form of , composed or consisting of , similar to) MBh. Ka1v. &c
rūpaka [L=179219]
image , likeness AitBr. Katha1s.
rūpaka [L=179220]
feature , sign , symptom W.
rūpaka [L=179221]
kind , species MaitrUp.
rūpaka [p= 886,3] [p= 886,2] [L=179222]
(in rhet.) a figure of speech , metaphor , comparison , simile (esp. one in which iva , vat &c are omitted e.g. bāhu-latā , " a creeper-like arm " , pai-padma , " a lotus-like hand " ; there are 3 or 4 varieties of rūpaka e.g. the ardha-r° , " partial metaphor " , khaṇḍa-r° , " imperfect metaphor " , and lalāma-r° , " flowery metaphor ") Ka1vya7d. Sa1h. &c (cf. IW. 458)
rūpaka [L=179223]
a drama , play , theatrical performance (esp. of the principal class , as opp. to the upa-rūpakas or inferior dramas ; of the former there are 10 species including the aka or higher order of play and the prahasana or farce) Das3ar. Sa1h. &c ( IW. 471)
rūpaka [L=179224]
a partic. weight (= 3 guñjās) L.
rūpaka [L=179225]
= mūrta or dhūrta L.
(H2) mfn.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
 rūpakarūpaka
rūpaka--rūpaka [L=179229]
a partic. kind of rūpaka (metaphor) Ka1vya7d.
(H3) n.
 lalāmakarūpaka
lalāmaka--rūpaka [p= 898,2] [L=181810]
(in rhet.) a flowery metaphor.
(H3) n.
 viśiṣṭayukta
vi-śiṣṭa---yukta [p= 990,2] [L=200599]
(scil. rūpaka) a metaphor which contains a partic. comparison (said to be a variety of the general rūpaka) ib.
(H3) n.
 śliṣṭaparamparitarūpaka
śliṣṭa--paramparita-rūpaka [p= 1104,1] [L=224051]
a continuous series of words having a double meaning (a kind of metaphor) S3is3. Sch.
(H3) n.
 śliṣṭarūpaka
śliṣṭa--rūpaka [L=224052]
ambiguity as a metaphor Ka1v. ii , 87.
(H3) n.
 sakalarūpaka
sa-kala--rūpaka [p= 1124,2] [L=227761]
a complete metaphor Ka1vya7d.
(H3) n.
 samādhānarūpaka
sam-ādhāna---rūpaka [p= 1159,3] [L=234151]
a kind of metaphor (used for the justification of a bold assertion) Ka1vya7d.
(H3) n.
 saviśeaarūpaka
sa--viśeaa---rūpaka [p= 1191,1] [L=239584]
a metaphor consisting of mere attributes Ka1vya7d.
(H4) n.
 heturūpaka
hetú--rūpaka [p= 1304,1] [L=264028]
a metaphor accompanied with reasons (e.g. gāmbhīryea samudro 'si , " because of thy profundity thou art a sea ") Ka1vya7d. ii , 83 ; 86.
(H3) n.




and let’s not forget

arūpaka
a-rūpaka [p= 89,1] [L=15526]
shapeless , immaterial MBh. iii , 12984

(H2) mfn.
[L=15527](in rhetoric) without figure or metaphor , literal.



Sanskrit Words for Simile



 agibhāva
a* gibhāva [p= 7,3] [L=1600]
correlation between the limbs of a body
8,1] [L=1601]
(H3) m.
[p= the mutual relation or correlation of the different limbs or members of anything , as in a simile or comparison between the principal parts or features of any object and those of the thing compared to it.
 antargatopamā
antargato* pamā [p= 44,2] [L=8282]
a concealed simile (the particle of comparison being omitted).
(H3) f.
 apahnuti
apa-hnuti [p= 53,3] [L=9938]
" denial , concealment of truth " , using a simile in other than its true or obvious application Kpr. Sa1h.
(H2) f.
 arthopama
artho* pama [p= 91,2] [L=16053]
a simile which merely states the object of comparison (without adding the tertium comparationis or any particle of comparison e.g. " he is a lion " , said in praise) Nir.
(H3) n.
 avayavarūpaka
ava-yava--rūpaka [p= 102,2] [L=17846]
a simile by which two things are only compared with regard to their parts Ka1vya7d.
(H3) n.
 avayavirūpaka
avayavi-rūpaka [L=17850]
a simile by which two things are only compared as wholes Ka1vya7d.
(H3) n.
 asadśopama
asadśo* pama [p= 118,3] [L=20607]
(in rhetoric) a dissimilar simile.
(H3) n.
 asabhāvitopamā
asabhāvito* pamā [p= 119,3] [L=20769]
a simile that implies an impossibility Ka1vya7d.
(H3) f.
 ākeparūpaka
ā-kepa--rūpaka [p= 128,3] [L=22411]
a simile , in which the object compared is only hinted at Ka1vya7d.
(H3) n.
 ivopamā
ivo* pamā [p= 168,3] [L=29436]
a kind of simile (in which iva is employed) Bhat2t2. x , 30.
(H3) f.
 utprek
ut-pre* k [p= 181,3] [L=31793]
ud-pra-īk) A1. -pre*kate , to look up to (with attention , as a pupil to his teacher who occupies an elevated seat) R.  ; 
to observe , regard
 ; 
to look out or at
Ka1d.  ; 
to expect
Ba1lar.  ; 
to reflect on the past
Amar.  ; 
to use (a word) figuratively
 ; 
to transfer (with
loc.) Sa1h. Ka1vya7d.  ; 
to take anything for another , compare one thing with another , illustrate by a simile
 ; 
to fancy , imagine
Ka1d. Ven2is.  ; 
to ascribe , impute.
(H1) (
 utprekaa
ut-pre* kaa [L=31795]
looking into

L.

L.

Sa1h.
(H2) n.
[L=31796]observing
[L=31797]foreseeing , anticipating
[L=31798]comparing , illustrating by a simile
 utprekaīya
ut-pre* kaīya [L=31799]
to he expressed by a simile Sa1h.
(H2) mfn.
 utprekā
ut-pre* kā [L=31800]
the act of overlooking or disregarding

Ven2is.

L.



Sa1h. Va1m. Kpr.
ut-pre* kā [p= 1321,3] [L=322670]
comp.)
(H2) f.
[L=31801]carelessness , indifference
[L=31802]observing
[L=31803](in rhetoric) comparison in general , simile , illustration , metaphor
[L=31804]a parable
[L=31805]an ironical comparison
(H2) (in
 utprekāvayava
utpre* kā* vayava [p= 181,3] [L=31806]
a kind of simile Va1m.
(H3) m.
 utprekita
ut-pre* kita [L=31808]
compared (as in a simile).
ut-prekita [p= 1321,3] [L=322680]
Das3ar.
(H2) mfn.
(H2) (also) invented (as opp. to "borrowed"),
 utprekitopamā
utpre* kito* pamā [p= 181,3] [L=31809]
a kind of upamā or simile , Ka1vya7d.
ut-preki--° to* pamā [p= 1321,3] [L=322680.1]
a kind of comparison, Ka1vya7d. ii, 23.
(H3) f.
(H3) f.
 utprekya
ut-pre* kya 1 [p= 181,3] [L=31810]
to expressed by a simile Sa1h.
ut-pre* kya 2 [L=31811]
having looked up &c
(H2) mfn.
(H2) ind.p.
 upamā
upamā́ 1 [p= 203,2] [L=35272]
» below , and for 3. » col.3) ind. (Ved. instr. of the above ) in the closest proximity or neighbourhood RV. i , 31 , 15 ; viii , 69 , 13.
upa- √  2 [p= 203,3] [L=35299]
(Impv. 2. sg. -mimīhi , -māhi , and -māsva ; Subj. 2. sg. -māsi) to measure out to , apportion to , assign , allot , grant , give RV. : A1. -mimīte , to measure one thing by another , compare MBh. Hariv. Caurap. &c
upa-mā́ 3 [L=35300]
comparison , resemblance , equality , similarity

&c ) S3Br. MBh. Kum. &c

» pūro*pama , lupto*pamā , &c ) Sa1h. Ka1vya7d. Va1m. &c

Nir.

RPra1t.
(H2) (for 2.
(H1) P. A1.
(H2) f.
[L=35301]a resemblance (as a picture , portrait
[L=35302]a particular figure in rhetoric , simile , comparison (a full simile must include four things ;
[L=35303]a particle of comparison
[L=35304]a particular metre
 upamāna
upa-māna [L=35313]
comparison , resemblance , analogy MBh. Sus3r. Katha1s. &c


Pa1n2. Sa1h. Kum. &c

Nir.

log.) recognition of likeness , comparison (the third of the four pramāas or means of correct knowledge)
upa-māna [L=35318]
(ifc.) similar , like Katha1s.
(H2) n.
[L=35314]simile
[L=35315]the object with which anything is compared
[L=35316]a particle of comparison
[L=35317](in
(H2B) mfn.